KEOD 2010 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 11
Title:

A KNOWLEDGE METRIC WITH APPLICATIONS TO LEARNING ASSESSMENT

Authors:

Rafik Braham

Abstract: We present a framework within which Knowledge is decomposed into basic elements called knowlets so that it can be quantified. Knowledge becomes then a measurable quantity in very much the same way data and information are known to be measurable quantities. An appropriate metric is thus defined and used in the specific domain of learning assessment. The proposed framework may be utilized for Knowledge acquisition in the context of ontology learning and population.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

A MODEL-DRIVEN SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT METHOD FOR MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Authors:

Keinosuke Matsumoto

Abstract: Traditionally, a Management Information System (MIS) has been developed without using formal methods. By the informal methods, the MIS is developed on its lifecycle without having any models. It causes many problems such as lack of the reliability of system design specifications. In order to overcome these problems, a model theory approach was proposed. The approach is based on an idea that a system can be modeled by automata and set theory. However, it is very difficult to generate automata of the system to be developed right from the start. On the other hand, there is a model-driven development method that can flexibly correspond to changes of business logic or implementing technologies. In the model-driven development, a system is modeled using a modeling language such as UML. This paper proposes a new development method for management information systems applying the model-driven development method to a component of the model theory approach. The experiment has shown that a reduced amount of efforts is more than 30% of all the efforts.

Paper Nr: 17
Title:

align++ - A Heuristic-based Method for Approximating the Mismatch-at-Risk in Schema-based Ontology Alignment

Authors:

Alexandra Mazak

Abstract: Frequently, ontologies based on the same domain are similar but also have many differences, which are known as heterogeneity. The alignment of entities which are not meant to be used in the same context, or which follow different modeling conventions, may cause mismatch in ontology alignment. End-users would benefit from knowing the risk level of mismatch between ontologies prior to starting a time- and cost-intensive procedure. With our heuristic-based method align++ we propose to consider the general application context of a modeled domain (the modeling context) in order to enhance the user support in schema-based alignment. In the method’s first part, ontology concepts are enriched with weighting meta-information, resulting from two indicators: importance weighting indicator and importance outdegree indicator. These indicators contain model- and graph-based information and can be observed and measured at the schema level of an ontology. The output of the first part are ranking lists of importance indicators for each ontology concept in the role of a domain class. In the second part, the candidate sample for our mismatch-risk model bases on external user input by manually identifying concepts between the lists of each source ontology. The heterogeneity risk among the concepts’ importance indicator values is measured as standard deviation over the candidate sample. Afterwards these measured values are aggregated, and a heterogeneity coefficient is calculated. On the basis of this risk factor the mismatch-at-risk (MaR) between ontologies can be approximated as a threshold for schema-based ontology alignment.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

POPULATING BIOMEDICAL ONTOLOGIES FROM NATURAL LANGUAGE TEXTS

Authors:

Juana Maria Ruiz-Martinez and Rafael Valencia-García

Abstract: Ontology population is a knowledge acquisition activity that relies on (semi-) automatic methods to transform unstructured, semi-structured and structured data sources into instance data. In this work, a semantic-role based process for ontology population is presented that provides a suitable framework for textual knowledge acquisition in the biological domain. In particular, with our approach, a given ontology can be enriched by adding instances gathered from biological natural language texts. Our system’s modular architecture provides a greater versatility than current approaches in the mentioned domain, as the process of ontology population is not directly dependent on the linguistic rules developed from the corpus.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

THEOREM PROVING IN THE ONTOLOGY LIFECYCLE

Authors:

Megan Katsumi and Michael Grüninger

Abstract: In this paper we present a methodology for the verification of first-order logic ontologies, and provide a lifecycle in which itmay be implemented to develop a correct ontology. We discuss the need for a methodology to address development issues and illustrate the way in which this characterization of the ontology lifecycle supports the design and deployment of ontologies within software applications. Theorem proving plays a critical role in the specification of requirements, design, and verification of the ontology. We illustrate the application of theorem proving in the lifecycle using examples from the PSL Ontology.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

REPRESENTING THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES VERSION 10 IN OWL

Authors:

Manuel Möller, Michael Sintek, Ralf Biedert and Patrick Ernst

Abstract: Current efforts in the biomedical ontology community focus on establishing interoperability and data integration. In covering human diseases, one of the major international standards in clinical practice is the International Classification for Diseases (ICD), maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO). Several country- and language-specific adaptations exist which share the general structure of the WHO version but differ in certain details. This complicates the exchange of patient records and hampers data integration across language borders. We present our approach for modeling the hierarchy of the ICD-10 using theWeb Ontology Language (OWL). Our model captures the hierarchical information of the ICD-10 as well as comprehensive class labels for English and German. Specialties such as “Exclusion” statements, which make statements about the disjointness of certain ICD-10 categories, are modeled in a formal way. For properties which exceed the expressivity of OWL-DL, we provide a separate OWL-Full component which allows us to use the hierarchical knowledge and class labels with existing OWL-DL reasoners and capture the additional information in a machine-interpretable way.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

THE EFFECT OF SEMANTIC CLUSTERING ON WEB SEARCH PERSONALIZATION

Authors:

Garofalakis John and Oikonomou Flora

Abstract: The World Wide Web has become a huge data repository and it keeps growing exponentially, whereas the human capability to find, process and understand the provided content remains constant. Search engines facilitate the search process in the WWW and they have become an integral part of the web users' daily lives. However users are characterized by different needs, preferences and special characteristics, navigate through large Web structures and may lost their goal of inquiry. Web personalization is one of the most promising approaches for alleviating information overload providing tailored navigation experiences to Web users. This paper presents the methodology which was implemented in order to personalize a search engine’s results for corresponding users’ preferences and dietary characteristics. This methodology was implemented in two parts. The online part uses a search engines’ log files and the dietary characteristics of the users in order to extract information for their preferences. With the use of an ontology and a clustering algorithm, semantic profiling of users’ interests is achieved. In the online part the methodology re-ranks the search engines’ results. Experimental evaluation of the presented methodology shows that the expected objectives from the semantic users’ clustering in search engines are achievable.

Paper Nr: 77
Title:

PANHAA SYSTEMIC DESIGN OF REGULATION ENABLING ONTOLOGY

Authors:

Anshuman B. Saxena and Alain Wegmann

Abstract: The deregulation of economies has re-created the need for regulation. From a Systems perspective, the unbundling of large monolithic industrial setups into smaller independent companies results in the dissolution of high level management structures which, in the pre-deregulated era, had the overall control of the end-to-end delivery process. In the absence of such holistic oversight mechanisms, deregulated industries remain vulnerable to systemic failure. Industry regulators need to go beyond the usual concerns of price, quality, and access, and invest in methods that capture the interactions between the different stakeholders in an industry. It is the understanding of the individual interactions that can help piece together a holistic view of the industry; thereby allowing the regulator to devise well informed interventions. In this paper we model industry interactions as a multi-party value realization process and take a Systems approach in analyzing them. Every value realization is analyzed both at the industry level and at the level of stakeholders within the industry. The design patterns that emerge from this whole/composite view of value realization form the basis for formalizing the concepts required to analyze the working of an industry. An explicit specification of these concepts is presented as Regulation Enabling Ontology, REGENT.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

HIGHER-ORDER REPRESENTATION AND REASONING FOR AUTOMATED ONTOLOGY EVOLUTION

Authors:

Michael Chan

Abstract: The GALILEO system aims at realising automated ontology evolution. This is necessary to enable intelligent agents to manipulate their own knowledge autonomously and thus reason and communicate effectively in open, dynamic digital environments characterised by the heterogeneity of data and of representation languages. Our approach is based on patterns of diagnosis of faults detected across multiple ontologies. Such patterns allow to identify the type of repair required when conflicting ontologies yield erroneous inferences. We assume that each ontology is locally consistent, i.e. inconsistency arises only across ontologies when they are merged together. Local consistency avoids the derivation of uninteresting theorems, so the formula for diagnosis can essentially be seen as an open theorem over the ontologies. The system's application domain is physics; we have adopted a modular formalisation of physics, structured by means of locales in Isabelle, to perform modular higher-order reasoning, and visualised by means of development graphs.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

INCREMENTAL DESIGN OF ONTOLOGIES - A Model Transformation-based Approach

Authors:

Henry Valéry Téguiak and Yamine Ait-Ameur

Abstract: This paper focuses on Model Driven Engineering (MDE) techniques to build ontology incrementally. The global building process consists of building ontologies from texts through a stepwise approach. Our approach consists of modeling each step independently and defining a mapping model to express relationships between these steps. Results of this work are applied in the ANR DAFOE project, which aims to propose a platform for building ontologies from several kind of resources (texts, terminologies, thesauri or existing ontologies).

Paper Nr: 89
Title:

DYSPHONIA MEASURES IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE AND THEIR USE IN PREDICTION OF ITS PROGRESSION

Authors:

C. Kambhampati

Abstract: Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that impairs the motor skills, speech and general muscle coordination. The progression of PD is assessed using a clinically defined rating scale known as Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Recent studies have shown the use of telemonitoring of PD using simple speech tests which replicate the UPDRS to clinician’s accuracy. Regression analysis is performed on a database of speech recordings of 42 PD patients to analyse the relation between dysphonia measures and the UPDRS with the progression of PD. It is observed that there is a strong correlation between the dysphonia measures and the UPDRS and it is possible to predict the UPDRS scores weekly using linear regression techniques. The results also suggest that certain dysphonia measures evolve more significantly with the progression in PD. This is supported by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) which identifies the dysphonia measures that are strongly correlated during the course of PD progression. The data is classed by trials undertaken by the patients and each patient had at least 20 valid trials.

Paper Nr: 98
Title:

TWO METHODS FOR EVALUATING DYNAMIC ONTOLOGIES

Authors:

Jaimie Murdock

Abstract: Ontology evaluation poses a number of difficult challenges requiring different evaluation methodologies, particularly for a “dynamic ontology” representing a complex set of concepts and generated by a combination of automatic and semi-automatic methods. We review evaluation methods that focus solely on syntactic (formal) correctness, on the preservation of semantic structure, or on pragmatic utility. We propose two novel methods for dynamic ontology evaluation and describe the use of these methods for evaluating the different taxonomic representations that are generated at different times or with different amounts of expert feedback. The proposed “volatility” and “violation” scores represent an attempt to merge syntactic and semantic considerations. Volatility calculates the stability of the methods for ontology generation and extension. Violation measures the degree of “ontological fit” to a text corpus representative of the domain. Combined, they support estimation of convergence towards a stable representation of the domain. No method of evaluation can avoid making substantive normative assumptions about what constitutes “correct” representation, but rendering those assumptions explicit can help with the decision about which methods are appropriate for selecting amongst a set of available ontologies or for tuning the design of methods used to generate a hierarchically organized representation of a domain.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

A KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING APPROACH SUPPORTING COLLABORATIVE WORKING ENVIRONMENTS BASED ON SEMANTIC SERVICES

Authors:

Celson Pantoja Lima

Abstract: This paper brings a contribution focused on collaborative engineering projects where knowledge plays a key role in the process. Collaboration is the arena, engineering projects are the target, knowledge is the currency used to provide harmony into the arena since it can potentially support innovation and, hence, a successful collaboration. Innovation often happens when knowledge (existing, recycled, or new) is combined and it depends on individuals (or groups) holding the appropriate knowledge to provide the required breakthrough. This work aims to support collaborative work carried out by project teams, through a set of knowledge-enabled services context aware. We introduce our conceptual approach (and its respective implementation) supporting a modular set of semantic services based on individual collaboration in a project-based environment, the CoSpaces Knowledge Support (CoSKS) component. CoSKS provides semantic based classification, reasoning and context analysis processes, to support the instantiation of the knowledge spiral and transform it into a semantically contextualized knowledge tree, made out of concepts that best represent contexts. Results achieved so far and future goals pursued by this work are also presented here. This work has been conducted as part of the CoSpaces Integrated project, funded by the European Commission.

Paper Nr: 108
Title:

SATISFYING USER EXPECTATIONS IN ONTOLOGY-DRIVEN COMPOSITIONAL SYSTEMS - A Case Study in Fish Population Modeling

Authors:

Mitchell G. Gillespie

Abstract: Ontology-Driven Compositional Systems (ODCSs) are designed to assist a user with semi- or fully automatic composition of a desired system. Current research with ODCSs has been conducted around the discovery and composition of web services and alternatively a bottom-up resource management approach to automatic system composition. This paper argues that current ODCSs do not truly satisfy user expectations as the semantic knowledge required to make proper discovery, decision-making and composition has not been fully represented. The authors introduce the beginning of their work of utilizing the inheritance of multiple ontologies to fully represent the functional, data, quality & trust, and execution of compositional units within an ODCS. Furthermore, a case study of fish population modeling is presented.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

CONTEXTUALIZING ONTOLOGIES FOR AGENTS

Authors:

Lito Perez Cruz and John Newsome Crossley

Abstract: It is well accepted that the usefulness of agents is enhanced by ontologies, but a common problem encountered by agents is the difficulty of accessing heterogenous ontologies. This problem is addressed by contextualizing ontologies, but how? We show how agents can contextualize ontologies that are represented using description logics. Several attempts have been made in addressing this contextualization problem, but we use the technique of the Tiered Logic Method (TLM) to build a system that is much simpler, more elegant, and easier to implement than existing technologies. Moreover, since TLMis a methodology it also has applications in other types of system. We sketch proofs of soundness, completeness and decidability for such a system, subject only to simple finiteness constraints, which would be satisfied in any practical case. Finally this method solves the problem of transitive subsumption propagation,which is still unaddressed by other well known proposals.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

THE CHALLENGE OF AUTOMATICALLY ANNOTATING SOLUTION DOCUMENTS - Comparing Manual and Automatic Annotation of Solution Documents in the Field of Mechanical Engineering

Authors:

Andreas Kohn

Abstract: This paper contains part of the actual research in the use case PROCESSUS of the German research program THESEUS. A case study about comparing manual and automatic annotation of solution documents in the field of mechanical engineering is described. A set of six solution documents was annotated manually by four users. Then, the same set of documents was annotated automatically by an ontology-based system. The two annotations are compared considering proposed ranking numbers. These ranking numbers give the weighting of annotations according to the overall and merged manual annotations. Therewith, they serve as a reference for the expected result of the automatic annotation. Comparing the automated and the manual annotation can not only reveal limitations of the automatic annotation process but also raise interesting questions to what extent domain specific knowledge has to be represented in the ontology.

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

PSYCHONET - A Psycholinguistc Commonsense Ontology

Authors:

Haytham Mohtasseb and Amr Ahmed

Abstract: Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization of the huge network of Concept-Net for a specific multimedia application based on key category(ies) from LIWC, such as visual or biological applications. PsychoNet adds a new layer of complementary psycholinguistic functions to the original semantic network. Moreover, learning, either clustering or classification, is more applicable in the developed ontology. The paper shows a sample application of text classification for mood prediction task. The result confirms the validity of the proposed network as PsychoNet outperforms LIWC in mood prediction.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

AUTOMATIC EMAIL CLASSIFICATION USING USER PREFERENCE ONTOLOGY

Authors:

Niladri Chatterjee and Saroj Kaushik

Abstract: In this work we have extended and implemented an ontology based approach for email classification based on user characteristics proposed by Kim et al.(2007). The approach focuses on finding relationships between user interests and their responses to emails. Rules and Ontology are created using the data and metadata of user characteristics, their preferences and responses to emails. Rules and ontology are then used to predict the response of a user to a new email. In Kim et al. (2007) approach, labels to emails were provided manually by a human expert. We have endeavored to remove the human intervention by developing an Automated Email Categorizer to provide label to an email based on its contents. We have also proposed a new term weighing method for emails to incorporate prominence of subject terms. Finally, we have integrated and tested the Ontology Based Classifier in conjunction with Email Categorizer where the former effectively uses the label provided by latter to classify an email based on user preferences.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

SINGLE DOCUMENT TEXT SUMMARIZATION USING RANDOM INDEXING AND NEURAL NETWORKS

Authors:

Niladri Chatterjee and Avikant Bhardwaj

Abstract: This paper presents a new extraction-based summarization technique developed using neural networks and Random Indexing. The technique exploits the advantages that a neural network provides in terms of compatibility and adaptability of a system as per the user. A neural network is made to learn the important properties of sentences that should be included in the summary through training. The trained neural network is then used as a sieve to filter out the sentences relevant for corresponding summary. Neural network along with Random Indexing extracts the semantic similarity between sentences in order to remove redundancy from the text to great success. One major advantage of the proposed scheme is that it takes care of human subjectivity as well.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

HYBRID METHODS OF KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION WITHIN A UNIFIED REPRESENTATIONAL KNOWLEDGE SCHEME

Authors:

Sergei Nirenburg and Marjorie McShane

Abstract: This paper presents a case study showing how hybrid methods of knowledge elicitation can be used to build models in support of the functioning of intelligent agents. What facilitates both the elicitation of knowledge and its conversion into actionable models is the use of a unified representational knowledge scheme – spe-cifically, an unambiguous, ontologically grounded metalanguage that serves as the language of all recorded knowledge as well as the language in which agents remember and reason.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

SEMANTIC SEARCH FOR ENTERPRISES COMPETENCIES MANAGEMENT

Authors:

Anna Formica and Michele Missikoff

Abstract: This paper presents a method for semantic search and retrieval in the context of networked enterprises that share services, competencies (knowledge), and a reference ontology (RO). The RO models the universe of domain competencies and is used to build the company profiles starting from their key documents. The search engine is used to identify the competencies needed in a given project. A semantic search engine is capable of representing a user request in terms of the RO concepts and identifying the collection of services or skills (offered by a specific enterprise) that match at best the user request. The proposed semantic search method, referred to as SemSim, is based on concept similarity, derived from the well-known notion of information content. Concepts in the RO are weighted according to a frequency approach. Such weights are used, in our proposal, to derive the pair-wise concept similarity, and an optimized method for computing the similarity of conceptual structures. Finally, we report an experimental assessment where we show that our SemSim method performs better than some of the most representative similarity search methods defined in the literature.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

KNOWLEDGE MOBILIZATION TO SUPPORT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A Model and an Application

Authors:

Julián Garrido and Juan Gómez-Romero

Abstract: EIA is a complex problem due to the wide range of different human impacts, the amount of different environmental indicators to measure the effect of an impact, and the correlation among them. In this paper we propose an application to support knowledge mobilization in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) based on a formal model to represent relevance between context descriptions and domain-knowledge subsets. The CDS (Context-Domain Significance) pattern allows building a tool to assist in the data collection phase to establish the relevant indicators in a particular scenario.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

THE DESIGN OF A SOCIAL SEMANTIC SEARCH ENGINE - Preserving Archived Collaborative Engineering Knowledge with Ontology Matching

Authors:

Jörg Brunsmann

Abstract: Private and business related knowledge acquisition is either performed via learning by doing or via human dialogue that includes transmission of social or collaborative questions and answers. Unfortunately it can be a time consuming task to find a trusted friend on the web for private recommendations or to find a qualified expert colleague in a (virtual) organisation for work-related questions or to find a suitable company contact person as a customer. Recently, such social question and answering is conducted with internet based technologies like social search engines which route a question to a appropriate human selected from a social or expert network. However, even if social search engines are involved, it is unlikely that existing social search approaches exploit machine-readable lightweight ontologies that enable classifying, publishing and sharing questions and answers to support subsequent semantic search without human involvement. This paper proposes the combination of semantic web and social search technologies in order to publish and archive social and collaborative generated knowledge for future reuse. Since knowledge classifying vocabularies evolve over time the paper also describes why archived knowledge may become obsolete and how ontology matching methods are used to migrate knowledge to conform to contemporary vocabularies.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

A SYSTEMIC METHODOLOGY FOR ONTOLOGY LEARNING - An Academic Case Study and Evaluation

Authors:

Richard Gil

Abstract: There is an important dispersion of technical and methodological resources to support the complete Ontology Learning (OL) process from diverse knowledge sources. This fact makes the maintaining of the structures of representation (ontologies) difficult. Therefore, the Knowledge-based Systems associated with user’s domains may not fulfil the increasing knowledge requirement from the user. In this paper, we give a possible solution for this problem. For this purpose, we propose a Systemic Methodology for OL (SMOL) that unifies and simplifies to the users the whole process of OL from different knowledge sources (ontologies, texts and databases). SMOL as methodology is evaluated under DESMET methods, in addition with their application for an academic case study is also included.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

RECONCILING TEMPUS AND HORA - Policy Knowledge in an Information Wired Environment

Authors:

Sylvie Occelli

Abstract: Societal transformation and dramatic improvements in Information Communication Technologies, are changing the context in which policy activity and the underlying knowledge process operate. There is a need to develop a policy knowledge representation, capable of informing the co-evolution between policy process and knowledge contents, while itself evolving in order to steer the process. This note is a contribution to this endeavour. The functional roles of knowledge representation, in implementing a software tool for policy design is discussed. As the technological potential is very promising, there is a need that the socio-cultural context does not fall behind to get hold of it.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

LSA-BASED SEMANTIC REPRESENTATION OF ACTION GAMES

Authors:

Katia Lida Kermanidis and Kostas Anagnostou

Abstract: Modeling the semantic space of a complex dynamic domain, like an action game, by automatically identifying the relations governing the game’s concepts, entities, actions and other features, is a challenging research objective. In this paper we propose modeling the semantic space of the action game SpaceDebris, in order to identify semantic similarities between players’ gaming styles. To this end we employ Latent Semantic Analysis and attempt to identify latent underlying semantic information governing the various gaming techniques. The several challenging research issues that arise when attempting to apply Latent Semantic Analysis to non-textual data describing a complex dynamic problem space (defining the semantic vocabulary and “word” utterances, deciding upon the dimensionality reduction rate, etc.) are addressed, and the framework of the proposed experimental setup is described. The extracted similarities are further employed for player modelling, i.e. grouping players according to their playing styles.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

URBANIT - Urban Ontologies to Support Informed Urban Development and Planning

Authors:

Jack Barton and Hairong Yu

Abstract: When dealing with complex and multi-faceted urban design challenges, the sheer weight of the information available can make discerning the ‘bigger picture’ challenging. It is the suggestion of this paper that there is a requirement for intelligent tools and mechanisms to assist in the capturing, comprehending and communication of solutions to such problems whilst keeping in mind the consensus of the aims and targets. To make knowledgeable decisions, there is a need to access the most relevant sources of information possible. Quality intelligence requires a quality foundation of data. This paper will outline some fundaments of how to best structure urban components and then examine how these can be applied to assist in improving design and planning of urban precincts. In conclusion, some next steps are proposed for the development of these tools and their application within an urban context.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

MODELING EDUCATIONAL KNOWLEDGE - Supporting the Collaboration of Computer Science Teachers

Authors:

Peter Hubwieser and Marcus Bitzl

Abstract: The planning of lessons and courses is a very complicated work. Unfortunately many teachers tend to prepare their lessons without profiting from the experiences of their colleagues. In this paper we show how the collaboration of teachers could be supported by a community software that supports the collaboration focusing on the knowledge elements that form the topic of the lesson that is to prepare. Starting from the didactical model of Heimann, Otto and Schulz, we have designed an ontology that comprises most of the information that is necessary to design a lesson in computer science.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICAL MEDICAL ONTOLOGIES

Authors:

Hiroko Kou, Mamoru Ohta, Jun Zhou, Kouji Kozaki and Riichiro Mizoguchi

Abstract: We have been building a Japanese medical ontology that provides an intelligent infrastructure for systematization and synthetic understanding of medical knowledge on a large scale. The objectives of our research include building a medical ontology and developing application systems based on it. We identified a few common fundamental technologies for understanding the medical ontology and implemented them. The main features of these technologies are summarized as the following two functions: dynamically generating is-a hierarchy according to the user’s interest, and providing natural language explanations. We built a prototype medical information service system using these fundamental technologies. We conducted an informal evaluation in a workshop and received favorable comments from medical experts.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

AN ONTOLOGY DRIVEN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR CLIENT ASSIGNMENT IN A BANK QUEUE

Authors:

Maria de Lourdes Martínez-Villaseñor and David González-Marrón

Abstract: This paper presents an ontology driven multi-agent system that uses a negotiation process for decision-support in a Bank Queue. The system assists queue client assignment based on the client profile and the cashiers’ workload in order to guarantee a minimum time response in client attention. The multi-agent system has a direct positive impact in the quality of service. Simulations of service providers’ management are presented in order to optimize the use of the resources. Our ontological user profiling and multi-agent system approach can be easily extended and adapted to other domains by adding client profile characteristics and adapting agent behaviours. The ontology proved to be useful when sharing content between agents and performing semantic checks.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

FUZZY KEYWORD ONTOLOGY FOR ANNOTATING AND SEARCHING EVENT REPORTS

Authors:

Juhani Hirvonen, Teemu Tommila, Antti Pakonen and Christer Carlsson

Abstract: This paper defines and applies a fuzzy keyword ontology to annotate and search event reports in a database. The ontology is developed by superimposing a fuzzy partonomy on fuzzy classifications. The claim is that fuzzy keywords will help us find event reports even if the event description is incomplete or imprecise and that this will provide benefits in finding the relevant problem reports. This will save time and costs when working with queries on large data- and knowledge bases.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

RAILWAY MODELLING - The Case for Ontologies in the Rail Industry

Authors:

J. M. Easton

Abstract: As the demand for rail travel grows amongst the travelling public, capacity on the largely Victorian infrastructure is becoming an important issue. High construction costs and the need for environmental responsibility mean that simply building more lines is not necessarily a viable option, and therefore the rail industry is beginning to look for ways in which their current assets can be used more intelligently. In the first wave of this process, a number of new projects have been started that monitor the condition of vehicles and infrastructure, but the greater challenge of integrating that data and using it to support business operations is still largely unaddressed. This paper outlines a number of data handling and data sharing issues that face the rail industry, and presents the argument for the adoption of an ontology-based data standard across the sector.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

IDENTIFYING DOMAIN-SPECIFIC SENSES AND ITS APPLICATION TO TEXT CLASSIFICATION

Authors:

Fumiyo Fukumoto and Yoshimi Suzuki

Abstract: This paper focuses on domain-specific senses and presents a method for identifying predominant sense depending on each domain. The method consists of two steps: selecting senses by text classification and scoring senses by link analysis. Sense selection is to identify each sense of a word to the corresponding domain. We used a text classification technique. Senses were scored by computing the rank scores using the Markov Random Walk (MRW) model. The method was tested on WordNet 3.0 and the Reuters corpus. For evaluation of the method, we compared the results with the Subject Field Codes resources, which annotate WordNet 2.0 synsets with domain labels. Moreover, we applied the results to text classification. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the method.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

CONCEPTUAL MODELS FOR METADATA INTEGRATION AND ARCHITECTURE EVOLUTION

Authors:

Christian Lettner and Christian Hawel

Abstract: Typical organizations operate several systems to perform their business tasks. To support the decision making process, the data processed by these systems must be integrated into a global, consolidated view. As each system supports a different business process and therefore operates in a different context, the data stored in these systems can have slightly different semantics. This semantic gap is one of the main reasons that data integration is a difficult task. The same challenges also apply to technical and business metadata. To resolve this semantic gap, conceptual models are proposed as the foundation for metadata integration. They are used to identify, interconnect and evaluate the similarity of concepts and to provide a vital source for architectural analysis. The conceptual model should provide a sound understanding of the domain and act as a general entry point for users who want to learn more about the system architecture.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

ONTOLOGY BUILDING USING PARALLEL ENUMERATIVE STRUCTURES

Authors:

Mouna Kamel and Bernard Rothenburger

Abstract: The semantics of a text is carried by both the natural language it contains and its layout. As ontology building processes have so far taken only plain text into consideration, our aim is to elicit its textual structure. We focus here on parallel enumerative structures because they bear implicit or explicit hierarchical relations, they have salient visual properties, and they are frequently found in corpora. We have defined a process which identifies them in a text, translates them into ontological structures and finally links such structures to the concepts of an existing ontology. We have assessed this process on Wikipedia encyclopaedic articles as they are rich in definitions and statements, and contain many enumerations. The many ontological structures we have obtained are thus used to enrich an ontology which we had automatically built from database specification documents.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

TOWARD A SEMANTIC MANAGEMENT OF GEOLOGICAL MODELING WORKFLOWS

Authors:

Nabil Belaid and Yamine Ait-Ameur

Abstract: Today, the petroleum industry demonstrates a greater concern toward ecology. Actions are undertaken in order to reduce the CO2 emissions in particular. Storing the CO2 in depleted petroleum reservoirs represents one of the ways of controlling the CO2 emissions. However, a prior modeling of the reservoirs has to be done for a secure storage. This geological modeling task follows series of complex workflows (business processes) of data processing services. These workflows are built without any methodological rule. It is difficult for geologists to execute workflows or even services that they have not designed. Moreover, it is not possible to build new workflows without having a precise knowledge on the compounding services and sub-workflows. We claim that in order to solve the two stated problems, explicit semantics has to be applied to describe the workflows and the services that compose them. In this article, we first explain how geologists operate today. Then, we show how we enrich geological modeling workflows, the services that compose them and the data they manipulate with semantic indexations through ontology-based characterizations (Geological Data and Services Ontologies). Finally, we explain how our approach supports reuse of existing workflows and build new ones.

Paper Nr: 87
Title:

TEMPORAL ENTITIES - Types, Tokens and Qualifications

Authors:

B. O. Akinkunmi

Abstract: Reified logics have been a major subject of interest in the knowledge representation community for well over twenty years, since over the years, the need to quantify and reason about propositional entities such as events and states among other temporal entities has grown. Galton had made it clear that one may either refer to types or tokens (instances) of such entities in the ontology. A clear tendency in the literature is to derive event tokens from event types by instantiating types with their times of occurrence. That tendency is exemplified by earlier token-reified logic. The problem with this approach is that it makes it difficult to distinguish between two different events of the same type happening at the same time. This is a major price that earlier logic paid for being a full-fledged logical theory. This paper presents an alternative way of deriving event tokens from event types which uses the concept of qualifications rather than use times of occurrence. A clear distinction is made between qualifications and the actual event tokens they help derive from event types. A qualification captures the peculiarities of an actual event token that are not part of the event type definitions. Our logic maintains both the advantage of being a full-fledged logic as well being able to add many qualifications to an event token. This paper presents an alternative way of deriving event tokens from event types which uses the concept of qualifications rather than use times of occurrence. A clear distinction is made between qualifications and the actual event tokens they help derive from event types. A qualification captures the peculiarities of an actual event token that are not part of the event type definitions. Our logic maintains both the advantage of being a full-fledged logic as well being able to add many qualifications to an event token.

Paper Nr: 94
Title:

AN API FOR DISTRIBUTED REASONING ON NETWORKED ONTOLOGIES WITH ALIGNMENTS

Authors:

Chan Le Duc

Abstract: In this paper, we describe design and implementation of a Java interface for distributed reasoning on networked ontologies with alignments. This API is built over the standard OWLlink interface which is a communication protocol between OWL2 components. It is compatible with usual reasoners based on OWL such as Pellet and FaCT++ in centralized contexts. In this API, we have implemented an optimized distributed reasoning algorithm which, on the one hand requires specific primitives to manipulate OWL ontologies and alignments between them, and on the other hand, provides services to check local and global consistency of networked ontologies with alignements. The main feature of this API is that it can be easily integrated in various editors and tools dedicated to ontology manipulation.

Paper Nr: 110
Title:

CONCURRENCY CONUNDRUMS - An Ontological Solution?

Authors:

Celina Gibbs and Yvonne Coady

Abstract: The arrival of a new era of programming, where developers must consider the subtitles of concurrency inherent in modern many-core architectures, calls for a revamping ranging from fundamental pedagogical processes to software development tools. The problem here is twofold: (1) corresponding real-world scenarios, commonly leveraged in pedagogical practices, contain implicit relationships that are significantly harder to explicitly anticipate in complex code-bases, and (2) the growing plethora of parallel programming language mechanisms collectively blur and distort the common core entities and relationships involved. As a possible solution, this paper proposes a general ontology for reasoning through concurrency conundrums at both high and low levels. The entities and relationships are originally established based on real-world scenarios presented to a group of grade seven students. The ontology is further developed, and implicit relationships revealed, based on an analysis student observations. The ontology is further developed and implicit relationships revealed. The goal of this work is form a basis for cognitive support that will map equally well to both generalized real-world scenarios and detailed code in different programming languages.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

MULTIPLE KERNEL LEARNING FOR ONTOLOGY INSTANCE MATCHING

Authors:

Diego Ardila

Abstract: This paper proposes to apply Multiple Kernel Learning and Indefinite Kernels (IK) to combine and tune Similarity Measures within the context of Ontology Instance Matching. We explain why MKL can be used in parameter selection and similarity measure combination; argue that IK theory is required in order to use MKL within this context; propose a configuration that makes use of both concepts; and present, using the IIMB bechmark, results of a prototype to show the feasibility of this idea in comparison with other matching tools.

Paper Nr: 126
Title:

ONTOLOGICAL MODELLING TO SUPPORT THE PLANNING OF IS DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES - A Position Paper

Authors:

Robert T. Hughes

Abstract: IT projects are known for the high rate at which they fail. Past work by the authors has investigated the building of cognitive causal maps to find and represent what the participants in a project feel are factors that lead to project success or failure. It was found that while agreement can often be reached on the broad causes of failure, there tended to be differences about the precise nature of the identified factors (for example the exact meaning of 'inadequate resources'). The position paper proposes the use of ontological models to enrich and clarify causal maps with information about the classes of object in the real world to which they refer. This would facilitate more effective planning of new projects. An aspiration of the authors is to use the information generated by ontology-enriched causal maps to provide guidance on the tailoring of methodologies, particularly Agile ones, for specific projects.

Posters
Paper Nr: 4
Title:

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

Authors:

Milan Segedinac

Abstract: This paper presents the formal representation of knowledge used in curriculum development process. Four curriculum components are represented separately: learning objectives, learning experiences, the organization of learning experiences and evaluation of learning outcomes. Learning objectives are formally represented using ontologies. Learning experiences consist of learning objects and achievements assessment instruments (tests) and they are specified using IMS Content Packaging standard. Learning experiences are mapped to the learning objectives ontology using XML. For describing instructional design, we proposed a special-purpose language implemented using XML notation. The achievement of a learning objective is assessed using test items linked to this particular objective. Such an approach allows more flexible management of the curriculum as a whole and easier modification of the particular components than in classical approach.

Paper Nr: 6
Title:

AUTOMATIC ONTOLOGY CONSTRUCTION FOR MANUFACTURING KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Authors:

X. Hou and W. J. Liu

Abstract: Domain ontology is a natural approach for representing manufacturing domain knowledge. A large amount of manufacturing domain knowledge, entities and their properties is embodied in documents. Automatic construction of ontology from these documents is therefore essential for knowledge and information management. A graph-based approach to automate ontology construction for fixture design is presented. Each document in a collection is represented by a graph. The information contained in a term is estimated from both local and global perspectives. Methods are proposed to disambiguate terms with different meanings and group similar terms to produce concepts, and find arbitrary latent relations among them.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

A CASE-BASED REASONING APPROACH TO PROGRAM SYNTHESIS

Authors:

Yulia Korukhova and Nikolay Fastovets

Abstract: The paper deals with automated program synthesis. For program construction a case-based reasoning approach is used. The case library, organized as ontology, contains specifications and corresponding texts of already known programs. In the specification the relationship between inputs and outputs is written, the text of a corresponding program is written on a programming language. The specification of the desired program is taken as a task to find solution for, and we are looking for similar cases - specifications in the case library. If such a case is found we are trying to adapt the corresponding text of program. The main problems that occur in the implementation of the proposed approach are the following: the organization of case library, definition of similarity and ways of adaptation. We propose to keep the case library as ontology; the ALC is used to describe specifications. This representation helps to find similar specifications and to adapt the corresponding solutions.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

CROSS DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE VERIFICATION - Verifying Knowledge In Foundation Ontology Based Domain Ontologies

Authors:

Najam Akber Anjum

Abstract: Knowledge verification refers to the process of making sure that the knowledge shared between knowledge bases of two parties is correctly understood on both sides. Domain ontologies developed out of a foundation ontology have a potential to improve the knowledge verification methods. This can be done by following concepts in domain ontologies to their origin and constituent conceptualisations in the foundation ontology. This is possible when matching ontologies belonging to two different domains but developed out of a single foundation ontology. Along with the concepts, a prescribed way of using these concepts by domain ontology builders also needs to be included in the foundation ontology. This prescribed way can exist in the form of an ontology of constraints which governs and shapes the building of domain ontologies according to the needs of the verification system and thus makes them more interoperable.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

TOWARDS A REPRESENTATION OF ENVIROMENTAL MODELS USING SPECIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE - From the Fibonacci Model to a Wildfire Model

Authors:

Pau Fonseca i Casas

Abstract: In this paper we explore how we can use Specification and Description Language (SDL) to represent environmental models. Since the main concern in this kind of models is the representation of the geographical information data, we analyze how we can represent this information in the SDL diagrams. We base our approach using two examples, a representation of the Fibonacci function using a cellular automaton, and the representation of a wildfire model. To achieve this we propose the use of a language extension to Specification and Description Language. This allows the simplification of the representation of cellular automatons. Thanks this we can define the behavior of environmental models in a graphical way allowing its complete and unambiguous description. SDL is a modern object oriented formalism that allows the definition of distributed systems. It has focused on the modeling of reactive, state/event driven systems, and has been standardized by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in the Z.100.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

CIS: CHANGE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

Authors:

Parimala N. and Vinay Gautam

Abstract: Change identification is one of the main challenges for Data Warehouse Schema evolution. Changes to the schema are required, among other situations, when the data warehouse fails to provide information to the decision maker. In this paper we address the issue of identification of changes when such a situation occurs. Towards this, the decision maker is asked to specify the information he/she needs, in business terms, to meet a goal. With the help of ontology and a set of rules we identify whether the information is present in the warehouse or not. The absence of data could be because it is not directly stored or because it is actually absent. In both these cases the changes needed to the data warehouse schema are suggested by the system, called the Change Identification System (CIS).

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

INFORMLEDGE SYSTEM - A Modified Knowledge Network with Autonomous Nodes using Multi-lateral Links

Authors:

T. R. Gopalakrishnan Nair and Meenakshi Malhotra

Abstract: Research in the field of Artificial Intelligence is continually progressing to simulate the human knowledge into automated intelligent knowledge base, which can encode and retrieve knowledge efficiently along with the capability of being is consistent and scalable at all times. However, there is no system at hand that can match the diversified abilities of human knowledge base. In this position paper, we put forward a theoretical model of a different system that intends to integrate pieces of knowledge, Informledge System (ILS). ILS would encode the knowledge, by virtue of knowledge units linked across diversified domains. The proposed ILS comprises of autonomous knowledge units termed as Knowledge Network Node (KNN), which would help in efficient cross-linking of knowledge units to encode fresh knowledge. These links are reasoned and inferred by the Parser and Link Manager, which are part of KNN.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES FRAMEWORKS FROM THE DYNAMIC ORCHESTRATION PERSPECTIVE

Authors:

Domenico Redavid

Abstract: This paper presents a comparison between the two main existing frameworks for modelling Semantic Web Services, namely OWL-S and WSMO, based on the formal support they provide for reasoning. The adopted yardstick is the set of use cases dictated by one of the foremost tasks in the research field: the dynamic orchestration. As explained in the paper, the term dynamic denotes the capability of an agent to design and manage in an automatic way an orchestration schema using the semantic descriptions of some services. This capability, strictly related to the automatization of Discovery, Selection, Composition and Invocation use cases, is constrained by the knowledge representation strategies adopted by WSMO and OWL-S. As consequence, each approach has some limits discussed in this work.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

AN APPLICATION FOR ONTOLOGICAL ENGINEERING AND VISUALIZATION

Authors:

Simon Suigen Guo and Christine W. Chan

Abstract: This paper presents the design and implementation of a software application for ontology visualization. The tool is called Onto3DViz, and it supports visualization of both static and dynamic knowledge models that have been developed based on the Inferential Modelling Technique. Onto3DViz presents a solution for organizing and manipulating complex and related domain concepts and relationships among concepts in a 3D model. This tool is applied for visualization of knowledge models in the application ontologies of pizza.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

INFLUENCE AND SELECTION OF BASIC CONCEPTS ON ONTOLOGY DESIGN

Authors:

Tomasz Boinski and Piotr Orlowski

Abstract: Ontologies as entities representing individual point of view on surrounding world introduce heterogeneity to knowledge representation. Common set of core concepts can introduce similarity big enough for further interoperability between ontologies. In this paper an experiment is presented proving that despite differences in detail ontologies stay similar in regard of core concepts. During the experiments NOIA methodology enhanced by OCS methodology was used to create ontologies from three significantly different sources of knowledge about risk management.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

SCALE AND THE CLASSIFICATORY DIMENSION - A Linguistic Approach to Contextual IR

Authors:

Esben Alfort

Abstract: Users of information retrieval systems presumably have (subconscious) reasons for choosing certain ways of formulating their queries. Consequently, the words used may tell us something about the users’ intentions. However, researchers in Contextual IR have a strong emphasis on computational solutions and tend to ignore a careful linguistic analysis of the actual queries. As a first step towards such a linguistic treatment, I suggest that we treat classification as a dimension parallel to space and time and learn from our experience with these dimensions in trying to cope with subjectivity in connection with IR systems.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

UNFADING DECISIONS - A Position Paper on Decision Reconstruction

Authors:

Francisco Antunes and João Paulo Costa

Abstract: The importance of understanding and recording past decisions increases when we realize that employees’ memories are not always available, neither will they last permanently in organizations. In this paper we posit that the ability to perform decision reconstruction using a Group Support System (GSS) can provide a flexible solution to the problem, but only if the information model underlying it is able to provide bidirectional support to the phases of a decision-making process. For this, we present general characteristics for an information model to support decision-making as well as decision reconstruction processes.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

DEFINING THE SEMANTICS OF IT SERVICE MANAGEMENT MODELS USING OWL AND SWRL

Authors:

María-Cruz Valiente

Abstract: Service management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities that provide value to customers in the form of services. Many organizations are aware of the need to adopt best practices in order to create an effective IT Service Management (ITSM) for enabling Business and IT integration. However, the reuse and interchange of service models is still quite limited in the area of IT service support due to the problems in connecting with natural language. In this context, this paper presents the ITIL-based Service Management Model aimed at capturing ITSM best practices by means of a formal ontology-based business DSL (Domain-Specific Language). We show how this DSL can be formally represented adopting the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). This ontology will precisely define the semantics associated to IT service management models, enabling different tools to interchange them without ambiguities. These models will be defined just in terms of the business logic, without any architectural or platform-specific consideration. That is, according to the OMG's four-layered architecture, the proposed model could be placed at a CIM level.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

ONTOLOGIES DERIVED FROM WIKIPEDIA - A Framework for Comparison

Authors:

Alejandro Metke-Jimenez

Abstract: Since its debut in 2001 Wikipedia has attracted the attention of many researchers in different fields. In recent years researchers in the area of ontology learning have realised the huge potential of Wikipedia as a source of semi-structured knowledge and several systems have used it as their main source of knowledge. However, the techniques used to extract semantic information vary greatly, as do the resulting ontologies. This paper introduces a framework to compare ontology learning systems that use Wikipedia as their main source of knowledge. Six prominent systems are compared and contrasted using the framework.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

UNSUPERVISED ALGORITHM FOR THE CONCEPT DISAMBIGUATION IN ONTOLOGIES - Semantic Rules and Voting System to Determine Suitable Senses

Authors:

Isaac Lera

Abstract: We present a new unsupervised algorithm which uses external resources and does not require any training to determine the sense more suitable of an ontology concept. We try to find out lexical coincidences among terms of both resources: ontology and WordNet. Through a voting system, we give weight each sense according to measurable parameters and logic rules, in function of semantic role of each correspondence element.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

BALLON - An Ontology for Forensic Ballistics Domain

Authors:

Arif Yilmaz

Abstract: Forensic ballistics is the domain that analyzes the firearm usage in crimes, thus assisting in exposing connections between crime scenes. While concept of the ballistics domain is strict and well defined; to the best of our knowledge, there is no standard representation of knowledge on this domain open to the public use. In our study, we represent an open ballistics domain ontology in a ballistics identification system and our aim is to acquire an effective reasoning capability. The proposed ontology, models the real world relationships between the concepts, thus forming a very close semantic representation of the ballistics domain. Therefore, in our ontology, reasoning capability is effectively used in order to set up relationships between concepts automatically.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

THE COMPUTATIONAL REPRESENTATION OF CONCEPTS IN FORMAL ONTOLOGIES - Some General Considerations

Authors:

Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto

Abstract: Within cognitive science, the “concept of concept” results to be highly disputed and problematic. In our opinion, this is due to the fact that the notion itself of concept is in some sense heterogeneous, and encompasses different cognitive phenomena. This results in a strain between conflicting requirements, such as, for example, compositionality on the one side and the need of representing prototypical information on the other. This has several consequences also for the practice of knowledge engineering and for the technology of formal ontologies. In this paper we propose an analysis of this state of affairs. As a possible way out, in the conclusions we suggest a framework for the representation of concepts, which is inspired by the so called dual process theories of reasoning and rationality.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

COMPLEXITY MEASUREMENT OF PRODUCT MODELS

Authors:

Stephan Große Austing and Axel Hahn

Abstract: Complexity management in product development is a challenging task. Modelling the relations in and between partial models from different domains in an integrated semantic product model is a step towards complexity awareness. However it still lacks the quantitative measurement of the overall complexity which can be used to compare product models and control development progress. In this paper we present an approach to evaluate the impact of relations on the overall complexity which results into a complexity measure. The approach is based on a regression model created from a RDF/OWL graph.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

AN ONTOLOGY FOR MOBILITY IMPAIRED USER NEEDS AND SERVICES

Authors:

Dionisis D. Kehagias and Dimitrios Tzovaras

Abstract: This paper introduces an ontology that encodes the information needs of mobility impaired users in a wide range of use cases, while on the move. The ontology is open, reusable and capable to interfacing other ontologies and applications. Ontology development was motivated by the ASK-IT ambient intelligence framework. The psychological frameworks Action and Activity Theory, approaches to conceptualise goal-directed human behaviour, were applied for the extraction of user content requirements that influenced the design of the ontology. The paper describes how two working groups composed of cognitive and computer scientists collaborated for the development of the ontology and how part of the ontology was consumed in the context of ASK-IT.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

BUILDING MULTILINGUAL LEXICAL RESOURCES ON SEMIOTIC PRINCIPLES

Authors:

Davide Picca

Abstract: Multilinguality permeates the web so that multilingual resources are fundamental in several NLP applications as cross language information retrieval as well as machine translation. Nonetheless the manual creation of such resources is very expensive. Semantic Web technologies can represent a great enhancement for NLP applications. In this paper, we show how Semantic Web technologies as an upper ontology based on well-founded semiotic theories can be applied to build multilingual lexical resources as Machine Readable Dictionaries (MRDs).

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

THE SOCIAL ONTOLOGY BUILDING AND EVOLUTION (SOBE) PLATFORM

Authors:

Daniela Angelucci and Alessia Barbagallo

Abstract: In this paper, the Social Ontology Building and Evolution (SOBE) method and the corresponding software platform for cooperative ontology building in the context of a cluster of enterprises is presented. The SOBE is characterized by three main aspects: (i) automatic knowledge extraction from unstructured documents; (ii) social validation, involving a community of domain experts; (iii) a step-wise approach which goes through five main steps which produce incremental results towards the construction of a domain ontology.

Paper Nr: 96
Title:

A STATISTICAL APPROACH TO THE IMPACT OF FEATURED ARTICLES IN WIKIPEDIA

Authors:

Antonio J. Reinoso and Felipe Ortega

Abstract: This paper presents an empirical study on the impact of featured articles on the attention that Wikipedia’s articles attract, and how this behavior differs in different editions of Wikipedia. The study is based on the analysis of the log lines registered by the Wikimedia Foundation Squid servers after having sent the appropriate content in response to the corresponding request submitted by any Wikipedia user. The analysis has been conducted regarding the six most visited editions of the Wikipedia and has involved more than 4,100 million log lines corresponding to the traffic of September, October and November 2009. The methodology of work has mainly consisted on the parsing of the requests sent by the users and on their subsequent filtering according to the study directives. Relevant information fields has been finally stored in a database for persistence and further characterization. The main results of this paper are twofold: it shows how to use the the traffic log to extract information about the use ofWikipedia, which is a novel research approach without precedences in the research community, and it analyzes whether the featured articles mechanism achieve to attract more attention or not.

Paper Nr: 100
Title:

ON THE EXTENSION OF ARABIC WORDNET NAMED ENTITIES AND ITS IMPACT ON QUESTION / ANSWERING

Authors:

Lahsen Abouenour

Abstract: Applying a semantic approach has improved performances in the context of the Arabic Question/Answering (Q/A) systems. This approach is based on the current release of the Arabic WordNet (AWN) ontology. The analysis of the results obtained in previous works has shown that extending the Named Entity (NE) content of this ontology is a promising technique in order to further improve performances. In this paper, we investigate through experimental results the impact of the AWN enrichment using the YAGO ontology which presents a large coverage in terms of NE.

Paper Nr: 102
Title:

ON THE USE OF CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS TO LEARN SEED ONTOLOGIES FROM TEXT

Authors:

Davide Eynard

Abstract: In the present work we show our approach to generate hierarchies of concepts in the form of ontologies starting from free text. This approach relies on the statistical model of Correspondence Analysis to analyze term occurrences in text, identify the main concepts it refers to, and retrieve semantic relationships between them. We present a tool which is able to apply different methods for the generation of ontologies from text, namely hierarchy generation from hierarchical clustering representation, search for Hearst Patterns on the Web, and bootstrapping. Our evaluation shows that the precision in the generation of hierarchies of the tool is attested to be around 60% for the best automatic approach and around 90% for the best human-assisted approach.

Paper Nr: 104
Title:

FIRST STEPS TOWARD A VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION ONTOLOGY

Authors:

Mounira Kezadri and Marc Pantel

Abstract: This paper presents the key elements of an ontology that formalizes part of the knowledge about behavioural modeling and the associated verification and validation technologies. It summarizes the objects, concepts, and other entities that are assumed to exist in this area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. We propose a classification of different modeling formalisms and a representation of possible verification and validation methods. A system is represented using several views conforming to different modeling languages. Its properties can be assessed with verification and validation technologies.

Paper Nr: 106
Title:

MODELING CONFLICT OF INTEREST IN THE DESIGN OF SECURE DATA WAREHOUSES

Authors:

Salah Triki and Hanêne Ben-Abdallah

Abstract: Security is very important in a data warehouse that often contains data confidential to an enterprise (like turnover) and/or data private to individuals (like health information). Furthermore, while providing access to some particular data in isolation could be safe, their combination could leak confidential information; such leak is known as conflict of interest. In this paper, we extend an existing UML 2.0 profile for the design of secure data warehouse with concepts to model conflict of interest. We illustrate the extended profile through a case study.

Paper Nr: 111
Title:

AN ONTOLOGY CHANGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - An Experiment on a Health Care Case Study

Authors:

Soumaya Slimani, Karim Baïna and Salah Baïna

Abstract: Numerous ontologies have been developed for life science domains. These ontologies are continuously changing. Thus, it is becoming profitable to study and to manage these ontologies change in order to keep all dependent ontologies and their related mappings consistent. The aim of this paper is to propose an agent based approach enabling not only ontology and ontology mapping evolution analysis but also to manage their changes. An experiment in health care illustrates the benefits of our approach. We apply our algorithm, and implementation prototype p2OEManager to eye specialist ontology (ESO) and primary health care ontology (PCO), and particularly, we use our ontology agent model, and prototype to manage some significant changes in the ESO ontology.

Paper Nr: 112
Title:

ONTOLOGIES AND COMMUNITIES CO-EVOLUTION IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Authors:

Francesca Arcelli Fontana

Abstract: Communities and ontologies are both concepts that have acquired strong momentum since the coming of age of new media such as Internet and the Web. They have become more relevant in a situation where growing communities and creating information categorizable through ontologies is made much easier and faster compared to what was possible before. In spite of this concomitance, the roles they have played in this information-rich environment have been so far not only different but also largely antithetic. The one played by communities is dynamic, and views information as something which is constantly changed and re-created by the agents that produce it. By contrast, the one played by ontologies views information in terms of its management at the meta-level through categories and concepts hierarchies, and it assumes that the ontology remains static, or changes very slowly as a consequence of decisions taken by the domain experts that control it. Given that information change is generally community-driven and this brings the clear necessity to make communities and ontologies interact. We propose to pursue this goal through a knowledge management approach, where the interaction between communities and ontologies is implemented as a knowledge life-cycle that leads to the creation of new concepts in the ontology as a consequence of the evolution of the information spaces constantly extended and re-created by the communities.

Paper Nr: 114
Title:

INTEGRATING CONTEXT KNOWLEDGE IN USER INTERACTION USING ANSWER SET PROGRAMMING FOR ENHANCING WEB ACCESSIBILITY

Authors:

Jesia Zakraoui and Wolfgang Zagler

Abstract: Today, users of web-based platforms are generally heterogeneous and interact via mobile devices for computing, and this is likely to increase in the future. The user interfaces to these platforms can considerably benefit from the semantic of context. They can adapt the utility of interaction styles and display modes depending largely on the surrounding environment, the user’s needs and the characteristics of on-line resources. In order to provide means for that, we trace in this work a perspective approach for integrating relevant parts of context in user interaction using semantic web technologies and Answer Set Programming that enhances web accessibility. Furthermore, by specifying constraints on the contextual information, we can determine which types of context are more important than others regarding the user interaction process. This allow us in a semi-automatic manner to consider only the most relevant answer sets in order to automatically adapting the user interface characteristics to users’ contextual information.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

PRACTICAL ONTOLOGY DEVELOPMENT - Some Lessons Learnt

Authors:

Rolf Grütter

Abstract: Ontology engineering is a well travelled ground, at least from a theoretical point of view. Long before the Semantic Web became popular, principles for the design of ontologies were established and, recently, guidelines and methods for building ontologies were published. Despite this guidance, there are issues in practical ontology development, which are not covered in the literature. This paper discusses some problems that occurred during the manual construction of an OWL application ontology and that required design decisions by the developers.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

PROPOSAL OF A METHODOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT FOR AUTOMATIC ONTOLOGY EXTENSION

Authors:

Jorge Cruanes

Abstract: Extend an ontology is a complex task, which require a considerable amount of decision makings. This paper will study the possibility of develop an automatic ontology-driven system which will be able to extend an ontology with a satisfactory recall and precision levels, extracting information from semi-structured XML texts.

Paper Nr: 127
Title:

A FRAMEWORK FOR REPRESENTING AND PROCESSING ARBITRARY MATHEMATICS

Authors:

Arnold Neumaier and Peter Schodl

Abstract: While mathematicians already benefit from the computer as regards numerical problems, visualization, symbolic manipulation, typesetting, etc., there is no common facility to store and process information, and mathematicians usually have to communicate the same mathematical content multiple times to the computer. We are in the process of creating and implementing a framework that is capable of representing and interfacing optimization problems, and we argue that this framework can be used to represent arbitrary mathematics and contribute towards a universal mathematical database.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

GUIDING ONTOLOGY LEARNING AND POPULATION BY KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM GOALS

Authors:

Rosario Girardi

Abstract: This article discusses the motivation and proposes a new process for learning and population of application ontologies which is entirely guided by the goals of the knowledge system being developed and emphasizes the acquisition of the ontology axioms as a first step in the process.

Paper Nr: 131
Title:

IMPROVING THE WORKFLOW OF SEMANTIC WEB PORTALS USING M/R IN CLOUD PLATFORM

Authors:

Seokchan Yun, Mina Song, Hyun Namgoong and Sungkwon Yang

Abstract: Semantic Web Portals (SWPs) provide web services supporting searching, sharing and exchanging of information using semantic web techniques. The pre-existing SWP construction workflow based on current RDF store has limited scalabilities for processing the large volumes of semantic data. In this paper, we propose M/R (M/R) based modules usable in each step (e.g., data storing, reasoning, and accessing) of the workflow to reduce overall processing time and cost. The proposed modules lesson burdens of each step by exploiting an M/R cluster which is easily enlargeable with use of a cloud computing platform.

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

MITIGATION OF LARGE-SCALE RDF DATA LOADING WITH THE EMPLOYMENT OF A CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICE

Authors:

Hyun Namgoong

Abstract: An expanding need for interoperability and structuralization of web data has made use of RDF (Resource Description Framework) plentiful. To guarantee a common usage of the data within various applications, several RDF stores providing data management services have been developed. Here, we represent a systematic approach to solve a late latency problem of data loading of the stores. It enables a fast loading performance for very large size of RDF data, and it is proven with an existing RDF store. This approach employs a cloud computing service and delegates preparation works to the machines which are temporarily borrowed at little payment. Our implementation for a native version of the Sesame RDF Repository was tested on LUBM 1000 University data (138 million triples), and it showed a local store loading time of 16.2 minutes with additional preparation time on a cloud service taking approximately an hour, which can be reduced by adding supplemental machines to the cluster.

Paper Nr: 133
Title:

KEY MANAGEMENT PROCESS ON THE HARDWARE CRYPTOGRAPHIC MODULE IN THE CLOUD COMPUTING

Authors:

John Manuel Delgado Barroso

Abstract: Cloud computing has multiple applications, from a standpoint of growth performance computing capabilities and data processing also offers a number of operational models, leaving out no items related to the scalability of the platform but with data security that it is managed and therefore the information in it are processed. The purpose of this paper is to implement a novel key management protocol on a platform of hardware cryptographic module to provide a solution to the management model, generation and use of cryptographic keys in the vicinity of cloud computing.

Paper Nr: 134
Title:

DYNAMIC DISCOVERY OF WEB SERVICES USING MOBILE AGENTS

Authors:

Gaurav Tiwari and Rahul Agrawal

Abstract: Although UDDI has been extensively been promoted for discovery of web services, it fails to provide many features like service provider validation, semantics lookup, Quality of Service Metadata, trust establishment etc. We propose a mobile agent based approach to the discovery of web services. The mobile agent framework is implemented using Java Agent Development Framework. The experimental results show that the mobile agents reduce the need for bandwidth as only data transfer required is that of the mobile agent itself. Since the mobile agents have all the data within themselves they need not communicate with other system. This also reduces the load on the system and makes the system fault tolerant.