KEOD 2011 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

LINGUISTICALLY BASED QA BY DYNAMIC LOD ACCESS FROM LOGICAL FORMS

Authors:

Rocco Tripodi and Rodolfo Delmonte

Abstract: We present a system for Question Answering which computes a prospective answer from Logical Forms produced by a full-fledged NLP for text understanding, and then maps the result onto schemata in SPARQL to be used for accessing the Semantic Web. It is just by the internal structure of the Logical Form that we are able to produce a suitable and meaningful context for concept disambiguation. Logical Forms are the final output of a complex system for text understanding – VENSES - which can deal with different levels of syntactic and semantic ambiguity in the generation of a final structure, by accessing computational lexical equipped with sub-categorization frames and appropriate selectional restrictions applied to the attachment of complements and adjuncts. The system also produces pronominal binding and instantiates the implicit arguments, if needed, in order to complete the required Predicate Argument structure which is licensed by the semantic component.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM TO SUPPORT LEGAL CASE CONSTRUCTION

Authors:

Stefania Castellani, Nikolaos Lagos, Nicolas Hairon, Antonietta Grasso, David Martin and Frederique Segond

Abstract: We have designed a system to support collaborative case reasoning and building in corporate litigation cases, that is, processes of bringing and pursuing lawsuits. The design is based on our understanding of the domain acquired through analysis of the literature, interviews of various parties involved in corporate litigation processes, and studies of the commercial tools already available. In this paper we illustrate the designed system and in particular the interaction modes that it supports that we believe address a number of the requirements that emerged through our analysis. We also describe its main components and their integration, including a knowledge model that represents the domain, and a natural language processing component for extracting semantic information. A description of a prototype system is also provided.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

BUILDING BRIEF ONTOLOGIES - A Case Study for Floods Management

Authors:

Julián Garrido, Ignacio Requena and Stefano Mambretti

Abstract: This paper introduces the generation of brief ontologies as a mechanism to obtain a reduced version of the original ontology. The new ontology includes the relevant knowledge for a given context and thus reduces reasoning time in applications. In order to do so, an automatic selection of the concepts that are included in the brief ontology is done. A case of study for flood management is also presented, creating a brief ontology that contains only knowledge related to floods from a generic ontology of environmental assessment.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

SEMANTIC CLASSIFICATION OF UNKNOWN WORDS BASED ON GRAPH-BASED SEMI-SUPERVISED CLUSTERING

Authors:

Fumiyo Fukumoto and Yoshimi Suzuki

Abstract: This paper presents a method for semantic classification of unknown verbs including polysemies into Levinstyle semantic classes. We propose a semi-supervised clustering, which is based on a graph-based unsupervised clustering technique. The algorithm detects the spin configuration that minimizes the energy of the spin glass. Comparing global and local minima of an energy function, called the Hamiltonian, allows for the detection of nodes with more than one cluster. We extended the algorithm so as to employ a small amount of labeled data to aid unsupervised learning, and applied the algorithm to cluster verbs including polysemies. The distributional similarity between verbs used to calculate the Hamiltonian is in the form of probability distributions over verb frames. The result obtained using 110 test polysemous verbs with labeled data of 10% showed 0.577 F-score.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

ENGINEERING AN ONTOLOGY FOR AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS - The OASys Ontology

Authors:

Julita Bermejo-Alonso, Ricardo Sanz, Manuel Rodriguez and Carlos Hernández

Abstract: This paper describes the development of an ontology for autonomous systems, as the initial stage of a research programme on autonomous systems’ engineering within a model-based control approach. The ontology aims at providing a unified conceptual framework for the autonomous systems’ stakeholders, from developers to software engineers. The modular ontology contains both generic and domain-specific concepts for autonomous systems description and engineering. The ontology serves as the basis in a methodology to obtain the autonomous system’s conceptual models. The objective is to obtain and to use these models as main input for the autonomous system’s model-based control system.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

CHARACTERIZING SEMANTIC SERVICE PARAMETERS WITH ROLE CONCEPTS TO INFER DOMAIN-SPECIFIC KNOWLEDGE AT RUNTIME

Authors:

Alban Gaignard, Johan Montagnat, Bacem Wali and Bernard Gibaud

Abstract: E-Science platforms leverage Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) principles to deliver large catalogs of data processing services and experiments description workflows. In spite of their growing success, the usability of these platforms is hampered by their catalogs size and the domain-specific knowledge needed to manipulate the services provided. Relying on domain ontologies and semantic services to enhance the understanding and usability of e-Science platforms, our contribution is twofold. First, we propose to delineate role concepts from natural concepts at domain ontology design time which leads to a neuroimaging role taxonomy, making explicit how neuroimaging datasets are related to the data analysis services. Then we propose to exploit, at workflow runtime, provenance information extended with these domain roles, to infer new meaningful semantic annotations. Platform semantic repositories are thus transparently populated, with newly inferred annotations, through the execution of e-Science workflows. A concrete example in the area of neurosciences illustrates the use of role concepts to create reusable inference rules.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

SPATIAL KNOWLEDGE IN PLANNING LANGUAGE

Authors:

Lamia Belouaer, Maroua Bouzid and Abdel-Illah Mouaddib

Abstract: This paper describes the integration of spatial knowledge in a planning problem. For example, in the case of evacuation problem of a building during a fire, we must know the fastest paths (the shortest, least congested, . . . ). Such applications require spatial knowledge to perform spatial planning. This planning taste becomes more complex when knowledge are shared by many actors. Indeed, our interest concerns collaborative work between agents, in particular the case of human-robot interaction. In such contexts, considering the space information in planning, we use a spatial ontology called SpaceOntology which handles different representations and abstraction levels of spatial information. We integrate this ontology in the planning by defining a formal language planning: Spatial-PDDL. Spatial-PDDL combines PDDL concepts with this ontology. Also, we distinguish between three types of actions: non spatial, spatial and navigation actions.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

PARTICIPATORY DESIGN OF A CONTINUOUS CARE ONTOLOGY - Towards a User-driven Ontology Engineering Methodology

Authors:

Femke Ongenae, Lizzy Bleumers, Nicky Sulmon, Mathijs Verstraete, Mieke Van Gils, An Jacobs, Saar De Zutter, Piet Verhoeve, Ann Ackaert and Filip De Turck

Abstract: The patient room of the future would be able to sense the needs and preferences of the patients and nurses and adapt itself accordingly by combining all the heterogeneous data offered by the different technologies. This goal can be achieved by developing a context-aware framework, which exploits and integrates the heterogeneous data by utilizing a continuous care ontology. The existing ontology engineering methodologies are rather extreme in their choices to include domain experts. On the one hand, there are methodologies that only discuss the scope, use and requirements of the ontology with the domain experts. On the other hand, there are approaches in which the ontology is completely constructed by the domain experts by providing them with user-friendly and collaborative tools. In this paper, a participatory ontology engineering methodology is presented that finds a middle ground between these two extremes. The methodology actively involves social scientists, ontology engineers and stakeholders. The stakeholders participate in each step of the ontology life cycle without having to construct the ontology themselves or attribute a large amount of their time. The applicability of the methodology is illustrated by presenting the co-created continuous care ontology.

Paper Nr: 89
Title:

SEMANTIC MANAGEMENT OF INTELLIGENT MULTI-AGENTS SYSTEMS IN A 3D ENVIRONMENT

Authors:

Florian Béhé, Christophe Nicolle, Stéphane Galland and Abder Koukam

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach combining the 3D elements composing the environment of mobile agents with semantic descriptors from Building Information Models. Our proposal is based on the IFC standard, which is used in the field of Civil Engineering to build digital models of buildings during the design phase. The semantic of IFC objects composing the 3D environment is used to select and set up 3D objects and elements of simulation scenarios. The result of this process dynamically generates the input files for the JaSIM environment that performs the simulation. These files deserve the representation of the virtual environment in which the simulation is running. It is represented by two separate files: a COLLADA file for the geometry and a RDF file for its semantics. Both files are generated according to the data extracted and selected from an IFC file by the user.

Paper Nr: 107
Title:

PRACTICAL GOAL-BASED REASONING IN ONTOLOGY-DRIVEN APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Huy Pham and Deborah Stacey

Abstract: In this paper, we describe a practical and effective approach to incorporating goal-based reasoning into ontology-driven applications. We present a reusable ontology-driven planning framework that could be used for such a purpose, and provide detailed examples on how ontology-driven application designers can use this framework to describe their planning problems, translate them into equivalent rule-based programs, execute them on a planner, and get back the results. Several interesting practicality challenges are discussed, and practical solutions are also proposed.

Paper Nr: 109
Title:

DAMO - Direct Alignment for Multilingual Ontologies

Authors:

Marouen Kachroudi, Sadok Ben Yahia and Sami Zghal

Abstract: Ontologies alignment is a process of extracting a set of correspondences between entities of two given ontologies. This process can be seen as a corner stones solution for the heterogeneousness of data in the semantic Web, so allowing their interoperability. Nevertheless, the main moan that can be addressed to the literature approaches stands in the consideration of the monlingual hypothesis. Indeed, very few approaches paid attention to the thriving challenge of multilingual ontologies alignment. This paper introduces a new alignment method for multilingual ontologies. This method implements a strategy of a direct alignment based on translation through an external resource. Results obtained after extensive carried experiments are very encouraging and bring to light many useful insights concerning the performances of the DAMO method vs those of the literature.

Paper Nr: 134
Title:

ACQUISITION OF SERVICE PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE BASED ON ONTOLOGIZED MEDICAL WORKFLOW

Authors:

Taisuke Ogawa, Mitsuru Ikeda, Muneou Suzuki, Kenji Araki and Koiti Hasida

Abstract: It is ideal to provide medical services as patient-oriented. The medical staff share the final goals to recover patients. Toward the goals, each staff has practical knowledge to achieve patient-oriented medical services. But each medical staff has his/her own priorities and sense of value, that derive from their expertness. And the results (decisions or actions) from practical knowledge sometimes conflict. The aim of this research is to develop an intelligent system to support externalizing practical wisdoms, and sharing them among medical experts. In this article, the author propose a method to model each medical staffs’ sense of value as his/her way of task-understanding in medical service workflow, and to obtain the practical knowledge using the models. The method was experimented by developing a knowledge-sharing system base on the method and running it in the Miyazaki University Hospital.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

KNOWLEDGE BASED SERVICES FOR DEVICES IN AUTOMATION

Authors:

Muhammad Baqar Raza, Robert Harrison and Thomas Kirkham

Abstract: The integration of manufacturing design and production processes around aggregated shared knowledge improves production efficiency. In this paper, planning level faults on the assembly lines or conflicts in product design are identified and picked up in real time via the use of integrated knowledge based services. Issues with the supply chain can also be fed into the model by linking the services to Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. In the production process, errors and/or faults are fed back into the knowledge base system to aid confident future planning. This approach allows more targeted alerts and reports of failures, empowering the production operative and allowing more problems to be solved at the source of origination.

Paper Nr: 4
Title:

KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION IN CONCEPT MAPS - Teacher Students’ Representations of the Relatedness of Physics Concepts

Authors:

Maija Nousiainen and Ismo Koponen

Abstract: Conceptual understanding of physics is based on understanding what the key concepts are and how they are related. In learning and teaching connections which tie concepts to each other give direction of progress - there is a flux of information. We discuss here how such ordering of concepts can be made visible by using concept maps and how the maps can be used in analysing the students’ views and ideas about the inherent logic of the relatedness of concepts. The approach discussed here is informed by the recent cognitively oriented ideas of knowledge organization concentrating on simple knowledge-organization patterns and how they form the basis of more complex concept networks. The results show that even in well connected maps there can be abrupt changes in the information flux in the way knowledge is passed from the initial levels to the final levels. This suggests that handling the information content is very demanding and perhaps a very difficult skill for a teacher student to master.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

AN ONTOLOGY FOR A HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATION NETWORK

Authors:

Lúcia Morais Kinceler, Angelo Mendes Massignam and José Leomar Todesco

Abstract: The importance of meteorological and hydrological data observation stations has grown substantially in recent years to meet the most diverse demands; ranging from environmental studies related to climate change and hydrological studies for water use, up to traditional monitoring work to prevent disasters through the use of forecast models of weather and water level control to contain the flow of rivers. The effort by governmental institutions, with support from the private sector expanded the network of observation stations in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. However, access to such data is still restricted to few technical people or to a group of users that access a web information system tailored for them. This paper presents the steps for developing a prototype of an ontology which serves to facilitate data access for web users not familiar with either specific concepts or the domain terminology. The goal for building the prototype is to understand the steps and implications using two complementary tools such as OntoKEM and Protégé for ontology construction.

Paper Nr: 12
Title:

KNOWLEDGE-BASED MULTIMODAL DATA REPRESENTATION AND QUERYING

Authors:

Julien Seinturier, Elisabeth Murisasco and Emmanuel Bruno

Abstract: This paper focuses on the representation and querying of knowledge-based multimodal data. Our work stands in the multidisciplinary project OTIM (Tools for Multimodal Annotation) dedicated to the development of tools for multimodal annotation of french conversational data. OTIM aims at encoding and manipulating annotations from all the linguistic domains in an unique framework. Defining a data model suited to the concurrent representation of these annotations involve to be able to analyze and to query them in order to help to determinate correlations between the linguistic domains. Linguists commonly use Typed Feature Structures (TFS) to provide an uniform view of multimodal annotations but such a representation cannot be used within an applicative framework. Moreover TFS expressibility is limited to hierarchical and constituency relations and does not suit to any linguistic domain that needs for example to represent temporal relations. To overcome these limits, we propose an ontological approach based on Description logics (DL) for the description of linguistic knowledge and we provide an applicative framework based on OWL DL (Ontology Web Language) and the query language SPARQL.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

DOMAIN SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IN TECHNICAL SOLUTION DOCUMENTS - Discussion of Two Approaches to Improve the Semi-automated Annotation

Authors:

Helena X. Schmidt, Andreas Kohn and Udo Lindemann

Abstract: The efficient search for existing solutions in mechanical engineering is a key-factor for successful product development. Ontology-based knowledge systems can support the semi-automated annotation of documents about existing solutions and enable the retrieval of those documents. However, the use of different wordings for similar products and a generally heterogeneous domain-specific language hinder the efficient annotation process. In this paper, two approaches to improve the semi-automatic annotation of documents by adding terms to the ontology are described. We evaluate the two approaches by analysing the industry sector-specific and company-specific languages used in documents in the field of mechanical engineering.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

UTILIZING A COMPOSITIONAL SYSTEM KNOWLEDGE FRAMEWORK FOR ONTOLOGY EVALUATION - A Case Study on BioSTORM

Authors:

H. Hlomani, M. G. Gillespie, D. Kotowski and D. A. Stacey

Abstract: With the advent of such platforms as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the open source community came the possibility of accessing free software/services. These may be in the form of web services, coded algorithms, legacy systems, etc. Users are able to define workflows through the combination of these software components with the aide of systems known as Ontology Driven Compositional Systems (ODCS). These systems have ontologies as their fundamental components that provide the knowledge bases that provide the rich descriptions of the ODCS components. Since these ontologies underlie ODCS, greater efforts must be spent in the engineering of these artifacts. We have thus proposed a knowledge identification framework that can be used as a guide within ontology engineering methodologies to perform such tasks as ontology capture and evaluation. In this paper we demonstrate the usage of this framework in a case study to evaluate the ontologies defined in the BioSTORM project. We do this by using a checklist (founded on the knowledge identification framework) through which we can evaluate the adaptability of the context of an ontology.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

LEVERAGING USER KNOWLEDGE - Design Principles for an Intuitive User Interface for Building Workflows

Authors:

D. Kotowski, G. Henriques, M. G. Gillespie, H. Hlomani and D. A. Stacey

Abstract: Compositional systems offer a unique opportunity to users who have domain expertise but lack the necessary skills to develop software solutions in their own domain. A subset of these systems are ontology driven compositional systems (ODCS). ODCS use ontological knowledge to help facilitate composition between individual compositional units. Since an ODCS is a technologically complex system where a majority of the emphasis is placed on the inner workings of the system, often the user interface is an afterthought. This paper focuses on the human issues related to developing a workflow management application by investigating the design principles behind an ODCS interface prototype.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

TOWARDS A DESCRIPTION LOGIC FOR SCIENTIFIC MODELING

Authors:

Jean-Pierre Müller, Hasina Lalaina Rakotonirainy and Dominique Hervé

Abstract: The classical ontologies are based on description logics. Most of the proposed variants fit within the logical framework, with the exception of the introduction of data types. This later extension is suitable for computer scientists but not appropriate for scientists in general. Indeed, most scientists use quantities with full unit systems as defined in metrology. More specifically, the geomaticians use, in addition to attributed or relational structures, what they call coverages, i.e. mappings from coordinates into data. Separate efforts have been made to formalize these aspects but none coped with all of them in an integrated knowledge representation framework. The aim of this paper is to propose description logic extensions able to integrate these various aspects into the general framework of knowledge representation, as a way to talk about matter and space.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

A TWO-WAY APPROACH FOR PROBABILISTIC GRAPHICAL MODELS STRUCTURE LEARNING AND ONTOLOGY ENRICHMENT

Authors:

Mouna Ben Ishak, Philippe Leray and Nahla Ben Amor

Abstract: Ontologies and probabilistic graphical models are considered within the most efficient frameworks in knowledge representation. Ontologies are the key concept in semantic technology whose use is increasingly prevalent by the computer science community. They provide a structured representation of knowledge characterized by its semantic richness. Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGMs) are powerful tools for representing and reasoning under uncertainty. Nevertheless, both suffer from their building phase. It is well known that learning the structure of a PGM and automatic ontology enrichment are very hard problems. Therefore, several algorithms have been proposed for learning the PGMs structure from data and several others have led to automate the process of ontologies enrichment. However, there was not a real collaboration between these two research directions. In this work, we propose a two-way approach that allows PGMs and ontologies cooperation. More precisely, we propose to harness ontologies representation capabilities in order to enrich the building process of PGMs. We are in particular interested in object oriented Bayesian networks (OOBNs) which are an extension of standard Bayesian networks (BNs) using the object paradigm. We first generate a prior OOBN by morphing an ontology related to the problem under study and then, we describe how the learning process carried out with the OOBN might be a potential solution to enrich the ontology used initially.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

USE OF EXISTING ONTOLOGIES AS INPUT FOR STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY MANAGEMENT - Reducing the Effort for Analysing and Improving Engineering Systems

Authors:

Andreas Kohn, Maik Maurer, Helena X. Schmidt and Udo Lindemann

Abstract: This paper presents an approach for combining two actual trends in the engineering domain: ontology-based knowledge management and structural complexity management. A focussed engineering system can be analysed and possibilities for improvements can be deduced with low effort by applying structure based algorithms on already existing ontologies. An overview of the current use of ontologies in the engineering domain is given for showing the various options for this application of structural complexity management. Necessary interfaces between ontology-based knowledge management and matrix-based structural complexity management are deduced by comparing both approaches considering data representation and analysis capabilities. The proposed approach is applied and discussed by the example of analysing an ontology originally developed for handling technical solution knowledge in the field of automation industry.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF PERSONAL WELLNESS

Authors:

Antto Seppälä and Pirkko Nykänen

Abstract: The healthcare paradigm is progressing towards preventive care and proactive services with holistic and personalized view on health and wellbeing. The concept wellness has been used to describe this holistic approach to health and well-being. Different wellness tools have already been introduced and some wellness applications are available to be used to manage and maintain personal wellness. With the technology advances like ubiquitous computing the number of different wellness systems will increase rapidly. To maximize the benefits of the new healthcare paradigm and wellness systems semantic interoperability is a necessity. Therefore there is a need for a personal wellness ontology which enables sharing of information between all actors in the wellness ecosystem. This study analyzes the context of personal wellness and starts the work on the personal wellness ontology by presenting a high-level information model of the domain. The results of this research help to take into account the different contextual aspects of wellness information covering also the privacy, confidentiality and security contexts.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

VERB SENSE DISAMBIGUATION BASED ON THESAURUS OF PREDICATE-ARGUMENT STRUCTURE - An Evaluation of Thesaurus of Predicate-argument Structure for Japanese Verbs

Authors:

Koichi Takeuchi, Suguru Tsuchiyama, Masato Moriya, Yuuki Moriyasu and Koichi Satoh

Abstract: This paper presents a system for word sense disambiguation based on a manually constructed thesaurus of predicate-argument structure, which is an ontology on the linguistic side providing essential information for mapping form texts to verb concepts. This system can be effective for word sense disambiguation even though the target word sense system is different from the thesaurus. We applied the proposed word sense disambiguation system to the test corpus of SemEval-2010 Japanese tasks. Experimental results showed that the thesaurus-based disambiguation system outperformed a CRFs-based system in recall rates of verb sense disambiguation. From the results of verb sense disambiguation, we clarified that the abstracted verb classes (709 types) in our proposed system were effective sets for verb sense disambiguation.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

BUSINESS ONTOLOGIES COOPERATION

Authors:

Mina Ziani, Danielle Boulanger and Guilaine Talens

Abstract: In the context of the cooperation between heterogeneous and distributed information sources, ontologies are a main issue. To represent shared knowledge, an hybrid domain ontology is designed and to respect each point of view of different experts, local ontologies are created. Since experts are willing to cooperate, similarities must be identified to build mappings between the concepts of the different ontologies. We propose a computer-aided system to allow the experts to choice similarity measures on demand. We apply this work to the geotechnic domain which involves various businesses.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

KNOWLEDGE BASED DECISION SUPPORT FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC PATIENTS

Authors:

Sara Colantonio, Massimo Martinelli, Ovidio Salvetti, Giuseppe De Pietro, Massimo Esposito and Alberto Machì

Abstract: Due to the current socio-economic impact of chronic diseases, a strong effort is being spent in the development of ICT applications able to support a new care paradigm specialized for chronic patients. Such applications are mainly based on patients’ telemonitoring for the collection of a number of relevant physiological parameters aimed at identifying and preventing acute events, while maximizing patients’ quality of life and reducing clinical costs. The most advanced and challenging features of these ICT applications are intelligent services devoted to the interpretation of monitored patients’ data for supporting clinicians in their routine management of chronic patients. In this paper, a Knowledge-based Clinical Decision Support System (KB-CDSS) is presented, which is aimed at aiding clinical professionals in managing chronic patients on a daily basis, by assessing their current status, helping face their worsening conditions, and preventing disease exacerbation events. The CDSS has been developed by encoding the relevant knowledge elicited from clinicians who have a large experience in patients’ monitoring. A formalism based on ontologies and rules was selected to build the Knowledge Base according to a scenario-based approach. The system is currently under validation for the management of real clinical cases.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

EVONTO - Joint Evolution of Ontologies and Semantic Annotations

Authors:

Anis Tissaoui, Nathalie Aussenac-Gilles, Nathalie Hernandez and Philippe Laublet

Abstract: In dynamic contexts, ontologies and their lexical component (termino-ontologies or TOR) have to frequently adapt to domain evolutions, new uses and new user needs. Among all depending data, ontology-based semantic annotations also are regularly updated to annotate new documents or to reflect new points of view. Within the TextViz ontology-based annotation framework, we propose the EvOnto tool and method that supports a coherent joint change management of termino-ontologies and semantic annotations as well as quality criteria to evaluate automatic text annotations and to detect lacks in the ontology.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

AUGMENTING SEMANTICS TO DISTRIBUTED AGENTS LOGS - Enabling Graphical After Action Analysis of Federated Agents Logs

Authors:

Rani Pinchuk, Sorin Ilie, Thomas Neidhart, Tiphaine Dalmas, Costin Bădică and Gregor Pavlin

Abstract: A distributed multi-agent system is used to support collaborative situation assessment and decision making for effective management of chemical hazards crisis in industrial areas. The system of agents supports creation of complex information flows between large numbers of stakeholders. The disseminated information and the system states are logged, which supports the analysis of the collaborative crisis management processes as well as the performance of the multi-agent systems framework. An ontology is designed to model the logged process. The fragments of logs that are meaningful to the users are converted to topic maps using the designed ontology. These topic maps are then merged to provide a federated picture of the data. A graphical query mechanism for querying the topic maps has been developed. This query mechanism creates graphical representations of relevant excerpts of the merged topic map, allowing conducting a thorough analysis of the logs.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

A PRACTICAL ONTOLOGY-DRIVEN WORKFLOW COMPOSITION FRAMEWORK

Authors:

Huy Pham, Deborah Stacey and Rozita Dara

Abstract: Existing planning-based approaches to ontology-driven workflow composition (ODWC) integrate planning into their frameworks and ontologies in ways that are either less reusable or ineffective. A more modular and reusable design is possible, but a successfull application of this design requires addressing some important practicality issues. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of existing approaches to intelligent ontology-driven workflow composition, discuss the practicality challenges associated with building ontology driven and planning-based workflow composition systems, and present a reusable and practical ontology driven planning framework that could be used for such purposes.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

FROM LINGUISTICS TO ONTOLOGIES - The Role of Named Entities in the Conceptualisation Process

Authors:

Nouha Omrane, Adeline Nazarenko and Sylvie Szulman

Abstract: Ontologies that have been built from texts can be associated with lexical information that is crucial for the semantic annotation of texts and all semantic search tasks. However, the entire pocess of building ontologies from texts cannot be fully automated and it is important to guide the knowledge engineer during the building process. This paper presents an enriched version of TERMINAE, which is a text-based methodology for ontology design. It combines a fact-based approach of modeling with the more traditional concept-centric one. We show that named entities can be used to enrich an existing ontology and to bootstrap the acquisition process. In other words, named entities are used for the conceptualisation of ontologies and not only for their population. This approach is illustrated on two use-cases based on policy documents and evaluated by measuring the Precision and Recall of the resulting ontologies with respect to pre-existing ontologies independently built by domain experts.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

FROM 3D POINT CLOUDS TO SEMANTIC OBJECTS - An Ontology-based Detection Approach

Authors:

Helmi Ben Hmida, Christophe Cruz, Frank Boochs and Christophe Nicolle

Abstract: This paper presents a knowledge-based detection of objects approach using the OWL ontology language, the Semantic Web Rule Language, and 3D processing built-ins aiming at combining geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds and specialist’s knowledge. This combination allows the detection and the annotation of objects contained in point clouds. The context of the study is the detection of railway objects such as signals, technical cupboards, electric poles, etc. Thus, the resulting enriched and populated ontology, that contains the annotations of objects in the point clouds, is used to feed a GIS systems or an IFC file for architecture purposes.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

AN APPLICATION OF SEMANTIC DISTANCE BETWEEN SHORT TEXTS TO INVENTIVE DESIGN

Authors:

Wei Yan, Cécilia Zanni-Merk and François Rousselot

Abstract: The gradual development of inventive design techniques makes that numerous knowledge sources are available for experts to solve inventive problems in different technical and non-technical fields. Real-world problems are established in terms of parameters that are inherent to the artefact being developed, but inventive design techniques use generalized engineering parameters to propose solutions to the problem. An abstraction effort needs to be provided to choose, then, the best generalized parameter. In this paper, we firstly present the inventive principles ontology we have established as a support for our approach. According to this ontology, we propose a method to calculate the semantic distance between short texts and use it to fill the semantic gap between the parameter and the generalized one, to facilitate the use of inventive design techniques.

Paper Nr: 92
Title:

ANALYSIS OF MAPPING WITHIN S-MODULE FRAMEWORK

Authors:

Krzysztof Goczyla, Aleksander Waloszek, Wojciech Waloszek and Teresa Zawadzka

Abstract: In this paper we present the results of our work on s-module (semantic modules) framework. The framework, introduced recently, consists of a high-level semantic description of a modular knowledge base accompanied by an algebra for manipulating module contents. The main contribution of the article is the presentation of the process of expressing Distributed Description Logics knowledge base within the s module framework. As the two methods exhibit two different approaches to modularization, analysis of this procedure is helpful in capturing the specifics of DDL, comparing it to other methods, and discussing the completeness of the s-module framework.

Paper Nr: 94
Title:

STRUCTURING TAXONOMIES BY USING LINGUISTIC PATTERNS AND WORDNET ON WEB SEARCH

Authors:

Ana B. Rios-Alvarado, Ivan Lopez-Arevalo and Victor Sosa-Sosa

Abstract: Finding an appropriate structure for representing the information contained in texts is not a trivial task. Ontologies provide a structural organizational knowledge to support the exchange and sharing of information. A crucial element within an ontology is the taxonomy. For building a taxonomy, the identification of hypernymy/hyponymy relations between terms is essential. Previous work have used specific lexical patterns or they have focused on identifying new patterns. Recently, the use of theWeb as source of collective knowledge seems a good option for finding appropriate hypernyms. This paper introduces an approach to find hypernymy relations between terms belonging to a specific knowledge domain. This approach combinesWordNet synsets and context information for building an extended query set. This query set is sent to a web search engine in order to retrieve the most representative hypernym for a term.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

LINKED DATA MEETS ONTOLOGY MATCHING - Enhancing Data Linking through Ontology Alignments

Authors:

François Scharffe and Jérôme Euzenat

Abstract: The Web of data consists of publishing data on the Web in such a way that they can be connected together and interpreted. It is thus critical to establish links between these data, both for the Web of data and for the Semantic Web that it contributes to feed. We consider here the various techniques which have been developed for that purpose and analyze their commonalities and differences. This provides a general framework that the diverse data linking systems instantiate. From this framework we consider the relation between data linking and ontology matching activities. Although, they can be considered similar at a certain level (they both relate formal entities), they serve different purposes: one acts at the schema level and the other at the instance level. However, they would find a mutual benefit at collaborating. We thus present a scheme under which it is possible for data linking tools to take advantage of ontology alignments. We present the features of expressive alignment languages that allows linking specifications to reuse ontology alignments in a natural way.

Paper Nr: 102
Title:

A HYBRID METHOD FOR DOMAIN ONTOLOGY CONSTRUCTION FROM THE WEB

Authors:

B. Frikh, A. S. Djaanfar and B. Ouhbi

Abstract: This paper describes a hybrid statistical and semantic relationships among model concepts for ontology construction. The implementation of the model, called HCHIRSIM (Hybrid Chir-Statistic and Similarity), can be adapted to any domain ontology learning from the Web. It can be viewed as a combination of information from inference view of concepts by using the CHIR-statistic method and the semantic relationships among concepts from the Web by the mutual information measure. The experiments show that our hybrid approach outperforms both purely statistical and purely semantic relationships among concepts approaches. The successful evaluation of our method with different values of the weighting parameter shows that the proposed approach can effectively construct a cancer domain ontology from unstructured text documents.

Paper Nr: 112
Title:

SEQUENTIAL KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURE IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM WITH AWARENESS

Authors:

Susumu Yamasaki

Abstract: This position paper deals with a formal system to manage sequential knowledge structure for Web site page analyses in a distributed system, by means of the rule-based state transition. Agent technology in AI (of modern approach), logic and database for relations between action and knowledge, process algebra and related logic with respect to distributed environments, and structural analyses (which may be static, interactive or constrained) of referential knowledge for Web site pages may be relevant, however, the present paper is concerned with the sequences like Web site page ones abstracted for a model of content retrievals through communications among sites via the internet. Awareness depending of states on the communications between sites may be adopted so that sequential knowledge acquisition and management would be possibly available.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

ON THE INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE IN A PROPOSITIONAL LOGICAL LAYER

Authors:

Sebastian Bab

Abstract: In general knowledge is complex which means that it is not an isolated entity, but a phenomenon which is coming (or can be derived) from different sources of knowledge. The position of the present paper is that it can be highly beneficial to study the integration of knowledge coming from different knowledge sources as an explicit propositional logical layer in knowledge engineering. Here the term of proposition is to be understood in the understanding of Frege as the inherent sense of a formal expression. We discuss a certain family of propositional logics – the so-called ƐT-logics – which allow for an explicit interpretation of formulas as propositions. We argue that the family of ƐT-logics-logics and their models offer a very expressive logical setting which is able to realize a certain scenario of the integration of knowledge from different knowledge sources.

Paper Nr: 122
Title:

EPISODIC LOGIC: NATURAL LOGIC + REASONING

Authors:

Karl Stratos, Lenhart K. Schubert and Jonathan Gordon

Abstract: There are two extreme stances in mechanizing natural language inference. One seeks to reformulate a raw message so as to conform with the syntax and semantics of some formal logical system (such as FOL) suited for reliable, potentially deep general reasoning. The other uses what has become known as Natural Logic—an easy but shallow way of treating natural language itself as logic and reasoning directly on this level. Finding the right balance between these opposing stances is one of the key tasks in advancing the ability of machines to understand human language, and thus, for example, make inferences from text. In this paper, we provide arguments and evidence that EPILOG, a general reasoner for the natural language–like Episodic Logic, can be equipped with the knowledge needed for effective Natural Logic–like inference while also providing greater generality.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

ROBUST SEMANTIC WORLD MODELING BY BETA MEASUREMENT LIKELIHOOD IN A DYNAMIC INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

Authors:

Gi Hyun Lim, Chuho Yi, Il Hong Suh and Seung Woo Hong

Abstract: In this paper, a semantic world model represented by objects and their spatial relationships is considered to endow service robots. In the case of using commercially available visual recognition systems in dynamically changing environments, semantic world modeling must solve problems caused by imperfect measurements. These measurement result from variations caused by moving objects, illumination changes, and viewpoint changes. To build a robust semantic world model, the measurement likelihood method and spatial context representation are addressed to deal with the noisy sensory data, which are handled by temporal confidence reasoning of statistical observation and logical inference, respectively. In addition to the representation of a semantic world model for service robots, formal semantic networks can be exploited in representations that allow for interaction with humans and sharing and re-using of semantic knowledge. The experimental results indicate the validity of the presented novel method for robust semantic mapping in an indoor environment.

Paper Nr: 127
Title:

FORMALIZING AND IMPLEMENTING KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION ON THE BASIS OF CONCEPTIONS - Position Statement

Authors:

Thomas Karbe

Abstract: Bernd Mahr’s Model of Conception is already studied in view of its philosophical background, its mathematical formalization in regard to consistency and its set theoretic implications. The ongoing work on which this paper states its position, concerns its mathematical formalization in regard to knowledge representation as well as its implementation in this respect.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

MEANING-PRESERVING SKOLEMIZATION

Authors:

Kiyoshi Akama and Ekawit Nantajeewarawat

Abstract: Skolemization is a well-known method for removing existential quantifiers from a logical formula. Although it always yields a satisfiability-preserving transformation step, classical Skolemization in general does not preserve the logical meaning of a source formula. We develop in this paper a theory for extending a space of logical formulas by incorporation of function variables and show how meaning-preserving Skolemization can be achieved in an obtained extended space. A procedure for converting a logical formula into an equivalent one in an extended conjunctive normal form on the extended space is described. This work lays a theoretical foundation for solving logical problems involving existential quantifications based on meaning-preserving formula transformation.

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

ONTOLOGICAL MODELING IN CLOUD SERVICES - About Information Sharing to Support Service Composition

Authors:

Martín Serrano, Lei Shi, Mícheál Ófoghlú and William Donnelly

Abstract: This paper presents a study about information sharing and domain ontological modeling within the framework of cloud computing services. We have investigated common practices on service oriented architectures design and knowledge engineering to support the composition of services in the cloud. Research results about information sharing and information modeling by using semantic annotations are discussed. Particularly we present how we use ontological models to represent management information and service lifecycle operations and thus control both system management operations and services running onto cloud infrastructure. We support the idea of look information sharing as a mechanism to facilitate the composition of services, thus ontology-based information modelling is used for this purpose. It enables information exchange by using interoperable data framework for different applications running on infrastructure and application layers. Ontologies support this information sharing approach by formalizing the necessary data needs to be shared or exchanged. An introductory application scenario is depicted. We discuss what implications this approach imposes on architectural design terms and also how virtual infrastructures and cloud-based systems can benefit from this ontological modelling approach.

Posters
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

PSYCHONET 2 - Contextualized and Enriched Psycholinguistic Commonsense Ontology

Authors:

Haytham Mohtasseb, Amr Ahmed, Amjad AlTadmri and David Cobham

Abstract: PsychoNet 1 has demonstrated the feasibility of integrating psycholinguistic taxonomy, represented in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense ontology, represented in ConceptNet. However, various limitations exist in PsychoNet 1, including the lack of concluding context of the concept annotation. In this paper, we address most of those limitations and introduce a new enhanced and enriched version, PsychoNet 2. PsychoNet 2 utilizes WordNet, in addition to LIWC and ConceptNet, to produce an integrated contextualized psycholinguistic ontology. The first and the main contribution is that, in PsychoNet 2, each concept is annotated by the potential (most representative) contextual psycholinguistic categories, rather than all applicable categories. The second contribution is the enrichment of LIWC through utilizingWordNet. This in fact produced an enriched version of LIWC that may also be used independently in other applications. This has contributed to substantial enrichment of PsychoNet 2 as it facilitated including additional number of concepts that were not included in PsychoNet 1 due to lack of corresponding words in the original LIWC. A sample application of text classification, for a mood prediction task, is presented to demonstrate the introduced enhancements. The results confirm the improved performance of the new PsychoNet 2 against PsychoNet 1.

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

CONCEPTUAL MODELLING FOR MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH IN CASE OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

Authors:

Tereza Otčenášková, Vladimír Bureš and Pavel Čech

Abstract: Emergency situations such as biological or chemical incidents require prompt decision making. There are however only a limited set of formally declared procedures and principles of how to tackle such incidents. The aim of the paper is to introduce specific techniques of conceptual modelling that form a framework of decision making during emergency situations. The paper will present an ongoing research that is focused on identification of proper response procedures and responsible authorities during the incident and unification of knowledge from do-main experts on bio-terrorism, epidemiology and medicine as well as procedures that are given in national and regional recovery plans.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

AN ONTOLOGICAL APPROACH TO VERIFYING P3P POLICIES

Authors:

Assadarat Khurat and Boontawee Suntisrivaraporn

Abstract: Privacy has become a crucial issue in the online services realm. P3P policy is a privacy policy enabling websites to express their privacy practices. With this policy, online users can check against their privacy preferences which facilitates the users to decide whether or not the service should be used. However, the interpretation of a P3P policy is unwieldy due to the lack of a precise semantics of its descriptions and constraints. For instance, it is admissible to have purpose and recipient values that have inconsistent meaning. Thus, there is a need for an explicit formal semantics for P3P policy to mitigate this problem. In this paper, we propose to use an OWL ontology to systematically and precisely describe the structures and constraints inherent in the P3P specification. Additional constraints are also defined and incorporated into the ontology in such a way that the reasons of an invalid P3P policy can be disclosed after the verification done by an OWL reasoner.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

ON ESTABLISHING AN ONTOLOGY REENGINEERING FRAMEWORK

Authors:

Dionysia Kontotasiou, Charalampos Bratsas and Panagiotis D. Bamidis

Abstract: A set of ontology evaluation criteria are specified in this paper in order to ensure that existing ontologies adhere to a set of requirements in order to be reusable in various contexts. The proposed evaluation criteria are designed in principle to provide the means for the improvement of existing ontologies and the development of new ones with efficient structure, increased readability and limited redundancy. Existing ontologies play a useful role in the development of new ones, because authoring ontologies from scratch is a costly and non-trivial task. On the other hand, reusing existing ontologies may save significant effort and helps interacting with different development tools. Based on practical experience, as well as existing ontology evaluation methodologies, we propose a set of specifications that should be taken into account at any ontology authoring or restructuring process. On top of this, we define a set of evaluation metrics in order to quantitatively assess the improvement that is potentially achieved by the application of the refinement process. The generalization of the application of the proposed criteria on a large-scale basis is the next step to establish an integrated ontology evaluation framework.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

A GRAPH-BASED TOOL FOR THE TRANSLATION OF XML DATA TO OWL-DL ONTOLOGIES

Authors:

Christophe Cruz and Christophe Nicolle

Abstract: Today most of the data exchanged between information systems is done with the help of the XML syntax. Unfortunately when these data have to be integrated, the integration becomes difficult because of the semantics’ heterogeneity. Consequently, leading researches in the domain of database systems are moving to semantic model in order to store data and its semantics definition. To benefit from these new systems and technologies, and to integrate different data sources, a flexible method consists in populating an existing OWL ontology from XML data. In paper we present such a method based on the definition of a graph which represents rules that drive the populating process. The graph of rules facilitates the mapping definition that consists in mapping elements from an XSD schema to the elements of the OWL schema.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

ONTOLOGY EVALUATION - State of the Art, New Approach and Perspectives

Authors:

Abderrazak Bachir Bouiadjra and Sidi-Mohamed Benslimane

Abstract: Ontologies have been shown to be beneficial for representing domain knowledge, and are quickly becoming the backbone of the Semantic Web. The need for ontology evaluation approaches and tools is crucial as the ontology reuse becomes increasingly important. A state-of-the art literature review on existing ontology evaluation approaches and tools is suggested as well as a classification according to some evaluation issues. Furthermore, a novel approach “FOEval” for ontology evaluation is outlined in the last section of the paper.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

SECURITY ONTOLOGY CONSTRUCTION AND INTEGRATION

Authors:

Tomasz Boiński, Piotr Orłowski, Julian Szymański and Henryk Krawczyk

Abstract: There are many different levels on which we can examine security. Each one is different from others, all of them are dependent on the context. Hence the need to bear additional knowledge enabling efficient utilization of the knowledge by the computers. Such information can be provided by ontologies. The paper presents gathered requirements needed to be taken into account when creating an onthology. The method of ontology creation and the criteria for keywaords selection are presented. Ontology created in such way should provide means for interoperability with other systems.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

CONVERSATIONAL AGENT IN ARGUMENTATION - Updating of Information States

Authors:

Mare Koit

Abstract: The paper describes a computational model that we are implementing in an experimental dialogue system. Conversation process is modelled where one participant is trying to influence his/her partner to agree to do an action. In the paper we concentrate on the representation of information states of the conversational agent and update rules which allow moving from one information state into another. Information state includes a partner model which consists of evaluations of different aspects of the action under consideration. The partner model is changing, based on the arguments and counter-arguments presented during the interaction. As a practical realization of the model we have in view a computer program which we call communication trainer.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

THE IMPLEMENTED HUMAN INTERPRETER AS A DATABASE

Authors:

Gábor Alberti and Márton Károly

Abstract: In this paper we continue to publish the results of our work with eALIS, a new “post-Montagovian” discourse semantic theory, demonstrating its functioning on a few classical semantic problems. We retain mathematical exactness while simultaneously applying cognitive paradigm. Previously we wrote study programs, for testing purposes, now we are building a (lexical) Prolog fact database. Although we are implementing the grammatical analysis, too, it is important to note here that the whole process of grammatical (phonological, morphological and syntactic) analysis is practically included in only one () of the four basic functions while the other three describe various parts of semantics.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

DIAGRAMMATIC KNOWLEDGE MODELING FOR MANAGERS - Ontology-based Approach

Authors:

Dmitry Kudryavtsev and Tatiana Gavrilova

Abstract: Diagrams are an effective and popular tool for visual knowledge structuring. Managers also often use them to acquire and transfer business knowledge. There are many currently available diagrams or visual modeling languages for managerial needs, unfortunately the choice between them is frequently error-prone and inconsistent. This situation raises the next questions. What diagrams/ visual modeling languages are the most suitable for the specific type of business content? What domain-specific diagrams are the most suitable for the visualization of the particular elements of organizational ontology? In order to provide the answers, the paper suggests light-weight specification of diagrams and knowledge content types, which is based on the competency questions and ontology design patterns. The proposed approach provides the classification of qualitative business diagrams.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

A LIGHTWEIGHT ELEMENT MATCHING METHOD FOR INDUSTRIAL TERMINOLOGY HARMONIZATION - Exploiting Minimal Semantics based on Naming Conventions

Authors:

Pekka Aarnio, Seppo Sierla and Kari Koskinen

Abstract: Harmonization of terminologies used in industrial standards has been widely understood to be necessary for better interoperability of industrial information systems. Partial automation of the terminology comparison and matching phases of this process is necessary, in order to reduce the workload of human experts. Terminology dictionaries have been developed by various national or international organizations and for different contexts, so their taxonomy structure and lexical content can be very different. Further, because they cannot be considered as true ontologies, advanced ontology matching techniques are not directly applicable. The goal of our research was to develop a lightweight element matching approach based on structural similarities of concept names. This approach is applicable, when similar naming conventions and rules have been applied during the development of both terminology dictionaries. In this paper, we present a new ElemMatcher method and demonstrate its application to the harmonization of PSK standards with ISO 15926-4. PSK Standardisation is an association of Finnish industry.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

COMPUTER AIDED CONCEPTUAL VISUAL DESIGN BASED ON ONTOLOGY

Authors:

Ewa Grabska

Abstract: This paper presents a broad range of ontological aspects that are related to conceptual visual design aided by computer. A formal model of visual design system is defined. In the considered exemplary CAD system based on the model, design ideas are visualized in the form of diagrams created by the designer on the monitor screen. Designer’s diagrams are automatically transformed by the system into data structures. Design knowledge encoded in the data structures is transformed into sentences of the first order logic. The obtained logic language enables the system to reason about compatibility of designer’s solutions with specified con-straints.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

ONTOLOGY MODELLING OF MULTIMODALITY IMAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR SPORT NEWS DOMAIN

Authors:

Y. I. A. Khalid and S. A. Noah

Abstract: Sharing common understanding of the structure of information among people, enable reuse of domain ontology and make domain assumption explicit are the reasons why we develop the multimodality image retrieval system. Sport News Ontology is the explicit formal specification of terms in the sport news domain and relation among them. We incorporate the terms with the “garden resource” in DBpedia to enrich our multimodality ontology and improve the performance of image retrieval system.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

REASONING ON DATA STREAMS FOR SITUATION AWARENESS

Authors:

Norbert Baumgartner, Wolfgang Gottesheim, Stefan Mitsch, Werner Retschitzegger and Wieland Schwinger

Abstract: Information overload is a severe problem for human operators of large-scale control systems, for instance, in road traffic management. In order to determine a complete and coherent view of the overall situation (i. e., gain situation awareness), an operator of such a system must consider various heterogeneous sources providing streams of information about a large number of real-world objects. Since the usage of ontologies has been regarded to be beneficial for achieving situation awareness, various ontology-driven situation awareness systems have been proposed. Coping with evolving and volatile individuals in ontologies, however, has not been their focus up to now. In this paper, we describe how concepts from data stream management systems and stream reasoning, such as sliding windows, continuous queries, and incremental reasoning, can be adjusted to support reasoning over highly dynamic ontologies for situation awareness. We conclude our paper with a prototypical implementation and a discussion of lessons learned, pointing to directions of future work.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

EXISTENTIAL DEPENDENCY DRIVEN APPROACH FOR EXTRACTING VIEWS FROM DOMAIN ONTOLOGY

Authors:

Soraya Setti Ahmed, Mimoun Malki and Sidi Mohamed Benslimane

Abstract: Designing ontologies in modular way is generally considered as a good practice. The goal of ontology modularization is to obtain a module or a set of modules from an ontology, which fit the requirements of a particular application or a particular scenario. In this paper we describe an approach for extracting ontology views using existential dependency (ED) from OWL domain ontology. The first step of our approach consists of transforming OWL file ontology to UML class diagram by reverse engineering process. The next step is transformation of UML class diagram to the G-M foundational ontology relations (which has been represented in UML as profile) enriched with existential dependency. The extraction process based on ED could provide a coherent fragment of an ontology parts together with transitive closure of dependant parts.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

USING FORMAL ONTOLOGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSISTENT AND UNAMBIGUOUS FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

Authors:

Marthinus C. Gerber, Aurona J. Gerber and Alta van der Merwe

Abstract: The purpose of accounting is to gather financial data of a business or entity, to interpret this data and to report the results in financial statements to the different users thereof. The interpretation of financial data is regulated by financial accounting standards including a conceptual framework that were developed to facilitate the reporting of financial information of entities. Due to the history of standards development as well as the mechanisms used, inconsistencies in the standards, framework and interpretations are part of the common legacy accountants are confronted with every day. The development of unambiguous and principle based financial accounting standards is therefore a key initiative at present of international accounting standards bodies such as the FASB and the IASB. This paper is concerned with the question of how recently developed computer science technologies could assist in dealing with and eliminating inconsistencies and ambiguities within and between different financial accounting standards. In our research we developed a formal ontology for some of the basic elements, and in this paper we report on our findings as well as make some suggestions for a formal approach to the conceptual framework and financial accounting standards development.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

MULTI-LABELED PATENT DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION USING TECHNICAL TERM THESAURUS

Authors:

Yoshimi Suzuki and Fumiyo Fukumoto

Abstract: This paper presents amethod for patent document classification by using an expanded technical term thesaurus. For classifying structural documents such as patent documents, structural information is very useful. However, if we use documents divided into several applicant tags, the number of words are limited. For example, ‘Title of invention’ tag is very important for patent document classification. However, the number of words in the tag is very few. Therefore, in order to deal with this problem, we employ two methods. One is to classify applicant tags into semantic tags, the other is word expansion using an expanded technical term thesaurus. For thesaurus expansion, our system integrates technical terms into a thesaurus using patent documents. The classification results showed the method using the expanded thesaurus was better than that without thesaurus. Although our method is very simple, it is comparable to other methods. These results suggest that thesaurus and our method to expand thesaurus can be useful for patent document classification.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

A SEMANTIC MODEL TO SUPPORT ADVANCED SUPPLY-DEMAND MATCHMAKING IN FUTURE CLOUD RESOURCES MARKET

Authors:

Giuseppe Di Modica and Orazio Tomarchio

Abstract: Cloud computing technology has reached a good level of maturity. As revealed by many surveys in the field, the public model is gaining more and more consensus among the customers who decide to move their applications onto the cloud. Nevertheless only few providers dominate the market of Cloud resources. They provide inflexible negotiation and pricing schemes to which customers and their applications must adapt. In the future, when the cloud standardization process will complete, thus opening the market to new players, the competition challenge will be played on the real capability of providers to accommodate at best customers’ requests. In this work we propose the definition of an ontology to help providers and customers to semantically characterize, from a business point of view, respectively the features of the offered resources and the requirements of the applications.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

EXPLOITATION OF ONTOLOGY-BASED RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM WITH MULTI-AGENT SIMULATIONS

Authors:

Martina Husáková and Pavel Čech

Abstract: The paper investigates the usage of ontology engineering-based techniques for recommendation system development. The potential of ontology containing SWRL rules is studied with relation to the generation of scenarios (recommendations). These scenarios are the basis for the creation of multi-agent models and simulations. The multi-agent systems offer dynamic view on implications of recommendations that are suggested by the ontology-based recommendation system.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

FEATURES FOR NAMED ENTITY RECOGNITION IN CZECH LANGUAGE

Authors:

Pavel Král

Abstract: This paper deals with Named Entity Recognition (NER). Our work focuses on the application for the Czech News Agency (ˇCTK).We propose and implement a Czech NER system that facilitates the data searching from the ˇCTK text news databases. The choice of the feature set is crucial for the NER task. The main contribution of this work is thus to propose and evaluate some different features for the named entity recognition and to create an “optimal” set of features. We use Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) as a classifier. Our system is tested on a Czech NER corpus with nine main named entity classes. We reached 58% of the F-measure with the best feature set which is sufficient for our target application.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

INTEGRATING RAILWAY MAINTENANCE DATA - Development of a Semantic Data Model to Support Condition Monitoring Data from Multiple Sources

Authors:

J. Tutcher, C. Roberts and J. M. Easton

Abstract: Railway networks comprise a large number of information systems, many of which are implemented by different stakeholders according to different design requirements, and in different ways. Owing to the safety-critical nature of these systems, data is rarely shared across boundaries, and the potential for re-use of information is lost. Using ontology, it is hoped that information from these systems can be extracted and shared, in order to facilitate better operational decision-making. This paper examines the aspects of data re-use likely to benefit the industry, and describes a railway condition monitoring ontology that is being designed in conjunction with several industrial stakeholders to improve operational efficiency.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

EVALUATING SEMANTIC CLASSES USED FOR ONTOLOGY BUILDING AND LEARNING FROM TEXTS

Authors:

Sarra Ben Abbès, Haïfa Zargayouna and Adeline Nazarenko

Abstract: A large effort has been devoted to the development of ontology building tools but it is still difficult to assess their strengths and limitations. Proposed evaluations are hardly reproducible and there is a lack of well accepted protocols and data. In this paper, we propose to decompose the evaluation of ontology acquisition process into independent functionalities. We focus on the evaluation of semantic class acquisition considered as a main step in the ontology acquisition process. We propose an approach to automatically evaluate semantic classes of ontologies that offer lexical entries for concepts. It is based on the comparative paradigm (to a gold standard). Its main focus is to compare how similar the generated semantic classes are to the gold standard concerning the disposition of concepts frontiers. This comparison relies on the lexical level and on the hierarchical structure of the ”gold” concepts. The propositions are implemented, two experiments are settled on different domains and prove that the measures give a more accurate information on quality of systems’ performances.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

d2d — A ROBUST FRONT-END FOR PROTOTYPING, AUTHORING AND MAINTAINING XML ENCODED DOCUMENTS BY DOMAIN EXPERTS

Authors:

Markus Lepper and Baltasar Trancón y Widemann

Abstract: In many cases, domain experts are used to write down their knowledge in contiguous texts. A standard way to facilitate the automated processing of such texts is to add mark-up, for which the family of XML-based standards is current best practice. But the default textual appearance of XML mark-up is not suited to be typed, read and edited by humans. The authors’ d2d notation provides an alternative which uses only one single escape character. Its documents can be fluently typed, understood and edited by humans almost in the same way as non-tagged text. In the last years, the d2d language underwent a development guided by practical experiences. In practice, robustness turned out to be highly desirable: This lead to revised semantics and a new algorithm which realizes a total translation function, This article gives the complete operational semantics of this algorithm after a short sketch of its context.

Paper Nr: 98
Title:

THOUGHTS ABOUT STRUCTURALIZATION, SPECIALIZATION, INSTANTIATION, AND METAIZATION

Authors:

Lothar Hotz and Stephanie von Riegen

Abstract: In knowledge engineering, ontology creation, and especially in knowledge-based configuration often used relations are: aggregate relations (has-parts, here called structural relations), specialization relation (is-a), and instantiation (instance-of). A combination of the later is called metaization, which denotes the use of multiple instantiation layers. Structural and specialization relations are mainly used for organizing the knowledge represented on one layer. Instantiation layers model different kind of knowledge, i.e. knowledge about sets, individuals, and knowledge about knowledge (metaknowledge). By applying reasoning techniques on each layer, reasoning on metaknowledge is enabled.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

CAN ONTOLOGIES BE SUFFICIENT SOLUTION TO REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING PROBLEM?

Authors:

Richa Sharma and K. K. Biswas

Abstract: The growing interest in Ontology has resulted in an increasing interest in Ontology based Requirement Engineering over last few years and a lot has been talked about ontological approach towards the core problem of requirement engineering, i.e. requirements representation and analysis. However, it is important to understand the Requirement Engineering problem and to what extent Ontology can serve as solution to this problem. There are two aspects to the problem – first establishing and evolving Requirement Engineering ontology and second aspect pertains to the Ontology of the business domain in question. In this paper, we discuss the second aspect in detail as requirement engineering is all about capturing, validating and maintaining the requirements for the system in question. We argue that though ontology provides the building blocks for the solution to the requirements problem but the blocks need to be integrated into a process-flow satisfying the quality needs and environmental constraints.

Paper Nr: 117
Title:

A GRAPH MANIPULATION SYSTEM ABSTRACTED FROM E-LEARNING

Authors:

Susumu Yamasaki and Mariko Sasakura

Abstract: In this position paper, we have an outlook on a graph manipulation system applicable to a visual interface of managing educational courses for an e-Learning system. We paraphrase a process of learning into a scheme of state-transitions related to graph manipulations. By the scheme, techniques and tools for educational courses can be abstracted to the treatments of graphs. Thus we construct a methodology of graph manipulations for a management of educational courses by extending the established graph viewer. We also propose a simple sketch-based interface to manipulate graphs. We here list up several tools of the sketch-based interface, based on the algorithm to detect mouse movements for indicating operations of the system.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

APPROACH TO MANAGE SEMANTIC INFORMATIONS FROM UGC

Authors:

Maria Ilaria Lunesu, Filippo Eros Pani and Giulio Concas

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to face the issue of classification variety and non-homogeneity, especially in Web 2.0, for User Generated Content coming from popular digital platforms. The solution offered to this problem is an approach based on an ontology that can represent information, typically associated with UGCs, integrated with a unique mapping technique amongst ontology contents and UGCs contents coming from other platforms. Regarding standard information and information shared by many of these objects, existing relations are exploited through mapping, when possible; otherwise new ones are created when it is deemed necessary. Such an ontology can represent, as embedded information, folksonomies and all non-standard information. That kind of information, despite being unclassifiable by means of standard schemas like the UGC ones, can be mapped. Rather than representing all properties of digital content, we were concerned with having an ontology that could associate semantic value to every tag, standard and not.

Paper Nr: 125
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF ARGUMENTATION SKILLS VIA LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - Bringing together Argumentation Support Tools and Learning Management Systems

Authors:

Nikos Karousos, Spyros Papadakis, Michalis Xenos, Nikos Karacapilidis and Manolis Tzagarakis

Abstract: This paper highlights the need for bringing together features and functionalities from both Argumentation Support Tools and Learning Management Systems (LMSs) in order to support the trainers in the construction and implementation of argumentation learning designs. In this context, it is also proposed that sharing learning designs across argumentation and critical thinking is one way to introduce different teaching and learning approaches that address this issue. The development and implementation of an Argumentation Learning Activity Tool (or the exploitation of an existing one) within an LMS will help to effectively address the problem of teaching argumentation skills.

Paper Nr: 129
Title:

SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR EEG/ERP RESEARCH

Authors:

Roman Mouček, Petr Jaroš, Petr Ježek and Václav Papež

Abstract: This paper deals with the software infrastructure for EEG/ERP (electroencephalography, event related potentials) research. The requirements for building this infrastructure have arisen from laboratory needs, unavailability of appropriate software tools and incompatibility of previously used commercial solutions. The standardization of EEG/ERP data formats and construction of complex and publicly open software infrastructure is also supported by International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) since these efforts can significantly accelerate brain research. The presented software infrastructure includes the web based EEG/ERP portal as the central data storage for data/metadata obtained in EEG/ERP experiments and JERPA software as the desktop software tool for computationally demanding operations. Supporting libraries (e.g. library of signal processing methods) developed and integrated to EEG/ERP portal and/or JERPA software are briefly described.