KEOD 2013 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Addressing Issues in Foundational Ontology Mediation

Authors:

C. Maria Keet and Zubeida Casmod Dawood

Abstract: An approach in achieving semantic interoperability among heterogeneous systems is to offer infrastructure to assist with linking and integration using a foundational ontology. Due to the creation of multiple foundational ontologies, this also means linking and integrating those ones. In order to achieve this, we have selected the widely used foundational ontologies DOLCE, BFO, and GFO, and their related modules, on which to perform ontology mediation (alignment, mapping, and merging). The foundational ontologies were aligned by identifying correspondences between ontology entities using seven tools, documentation, and our manual alignments, and comparing their effectiveness. Thereafter, based on the alignments, we created correspondences in the ontology files resulting in entity mappings and merged ontologies. However, during the mapping process, it was found that differences in foundational ontologies, such as their hierarchical structure, conflicting axioms due to complement and disjointness, and incompatible domain and range restriction, cause logical inconsistencies in foundational ontology alignments, thereby greatly reducing the number of mappings. We analyse and present these logical inconsistencies with possible solutions to some of them.

Paper Nr: 9
Title:

PRONTOE - A Case Study for Developing Ontologies for Operations

Authors:

Scott Bell, Pete Bonasso, Mark Boddy, David Kortenkamp and Debra Schreckenghost

Abstract: In this paper, we describe a set of software tools called the PRIDE ONTOlogy Editor (PRONTOE) and a methodology that allows system operators and domain experts to build and maintain ontologies of their systems with no explicit understanding of the underlying ontology representation. We present two case studies: one using NASA flight controllers, and another using the DARPA Robotic Challenge.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Using Associations and Fuzzy Ontologies for Modeling Chemical Safety Information

Authors:

Mika Timonen, Antti Pakonen and Teemu Tommila

Abstract: In this paper we propose a novel approach for domain modeling that combines two different types of models: (1) fuzzy ontology that describes the concepts of the domain and their relations in a formal way, and (2) association model that presents the associations between the terms of the domain. We utilize the combined model for query expansion by finding both highly associative and related concepts for the query terms. To demonstrate the feasibility of the model and its utilization, we use the query expansion in a search engine of chemical safety cards.

Paper Nr: 17
Title:

Ontology Development towards Expressive and Reasoning-enabled Building Information Model for an Intelligent Energy Management System

Authors:

Hendro Wicaksono, Preslava Dobreva, Polina Häfner and Sven Rogalski

Abstract: In recent years, energy consumption in buildings has been rising and is currently representing a significant percentage of the whole energy consumption on earth. The EU has responded this trend by requiring zero energy consumption by 2020 and by supporting innovative research approaches for improving energy efficiency in buildings without decreasing inhabitants comfort. This paper describes the approach to develop an intelligent system for building specific energy management that allows occupants and facility managers to monitor and control the energy consumption and also detects their wasting points. An ontology based information model for building energy management offering expressive representation and reasoning capability is also introduced in this paper. We highlight an approach to develop the ontology as the knowledge base providing the intelligence of the system. Furthermore we demonstrate how the energy performance analysis is improved using the ontology based approach.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Applicability of Quality Metrics for Ontologies on Ontology Design Patterns

Authors:

Rebekka Alm, Sven Kiehl, Birger Lantow and Kurt Sandkuhl

Abstract: Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) provide best practice solutions for common or recurring ontology design problems. This work focuses on Content ODPs. These form small ontologies themselves and thus can be subject to ontology quality metrics in general. We investigate the use of such metrics for Content ODP evaluation in terms of metrics applicability and validity. The quality metrics used for this investigation are taken from existing work in the area of ontology quality evaluation. We discuss the general applicability to Content ODPs of each metric considering its definition, ODP characteristics, and the defined goals of ODPs. Metrics that revealed to be applicable are calculated for a random set of 10 Content ODPs from the ODP wiki-portal that was initiated by the NeOn-project. Interviews have been conducted for an explorative view into the correlation of quality metrics and evaluation by users.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

Patterns for Interfacing between Logic Programs and Multiple Ontologies

Authors:

Luis Cruz-Filipe, Isabel Nunes and Graça Gaspar

Abstract: Originally proposed in the mid-90s, design patterns for software development played a key role in object-oriented programming not only in increasing software quality, but also by giving a better understanding of the power and limitations of this paradigm. Since then, several authors have endorsed a similar task for other programming paradigms, in the hope of achieving similar benefits. In this paper we discuss design patterns for hybrid semantic web systems combining several description logic knowledge bases via a logic program. We introduce eight design patterns, grouped in three categories: three elementary patterns, which are the basic building blocks; four derived patterns, built from these; and a more complex pattern, the study of which can shed some insight in future syntactic developments of the underlying framework. These patterns are extensively applied in a natural way in a large-scale example that illustrates how their usage greatly simplifies some programming tasks, at the level of both development and extension. We work in a generalization of dl-programs that supports several (possibly different) description logics, but the results presented are easily adaptable to other existing frameworks such as multi-context systems.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

Title-based Approach to Relation Discovery from Wikipedia

Authors:

Rim Zarrad, Narjes Doggaz and Ezzeddine Zagrouba

Abstract: With the advent of the Web and the explosion of available textual data, the field of domain ontology engineering has gained more and more importance. The last decade, several successful tools for automatically harvesting knowledge from web data have been developed, but the extraction of taxonomic and non taxonomic ontological relationships is still far from being fully solved. This paper describes a new approach which extracts ontological relations from Wikipedia. The non-taxonomic relations extraction process is performed by analyzing the titles which appear in each document of the studied corpus. This method is based on regular expressions which appear in titles and from which we can extract not only the two arguments of the relationships but also the labels which describe the relations. The resulting set of labels is used in order to retrieve new relations by analyzing the title hierarchy in each document. Other relations can be extracted from titles and subtitles containing only one term. An enrichment step is also applied by considering each term which appears as a relation argument of the extracted links in order to discover new concepts and new relations. The experiments have been performed on French Wikipedia articles related to the medical field. The precision and recall values are encouraging and seem to validate our approach.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

An Approach to Manage the Web Knowledge

Authors:

Filippo Eros Pani, Maria Ilaria Lunesu, Giulio Concas and Gavina Baralla

Abstract: The spread of the Social Web is influencing the evolution of Semantic Web: the way of producing and consulting information changes, as well as the way people relate themselves with the Internet and the services it gives. Users will participate at first hand to the developing of the Web which therefore becomes interactive. This study considers this feature, trying to link the worlds of Social Media and Semantic Web, with the aim of proposing a semantic classification of the information coming from the Web, which do not always follow a well-defined order and organization. Starting from a precise analysis of the information of the Web through an accurate and meticulous study on how these are presented and used, in order to give a sorted and easily usable data structure, this approach wants to define a taxonomy able to represent knowledge through an iterative combined approach, where top-down and bottom-up analyses are applied on the knowledge domain we want to represent.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Universal Enterprise Adaptive Object Model

Authors:

David Aveiro and Duarte Pinto

Abstract: In this paper we present a novel conceptual model that systematizes the integrated management and adaptation of: (1) enterprise models, (2) their representations, (3) their underlying meta-models, i.e., their abstract syntax and (4) the representation rules, i.e., concrete syntax for the respective models. All this for different modeling languages and also different versions of these languages. Thanks to our original use of the adaptive object model and type square patterns – normally applied in the context of software engineering, but here applied for enterprise engineering – we manage to provide a strong conceptual foundation for the development of software tools that will allow a precise and coherent specification of models and their evolution and also of meta-models and their evolution.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

Knowledge Resource Development for Identifying Matching Image Descriptions

Authors:

Alicia Sagae and Scott E. Fahlman

Abstract: Background knowledge resources contribute to the performance of many current systems for textual inference tasks (QA, textual entailment, summarization, retrieval, and others). However, it can be difficult to assess how additions to such a knowledge base will impact a system that relies on it. This paper describes the incremental, task-driven development of an ontology that provides features to a system that retrieves images based on their textual descriptions. We perform error analysis on a baseline system that uses lexical features only, then focus ontology development on reducing these errors against a development set. The resulting ontology contributes more to performance than domain-general resources like WordNet, even on a test set of previously unseen examples.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

Creating Facets Hierarchy for Unstructured Arabic Documents

Authors:

Khaled Nagi and Dalia Halim

Abstract: .

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 4
Title:

Towards SMT-based Abstract Planning in PlanICS Ontology

Authors:

Artur Niewiadomski and Wojciech Penczek

Abstract: The paper deals with the abstract planning problem -- the first stage of Web Service Composition (WSC) in the PlanICS framework. We present a solution based on a compact representation of abstract plans by multisets of service types and a reduction of the planning problem to a task for an SMT-solver. The paper presents theoretical aspects of the abstract planning as well as some details of our symbolic encoding, followed by preliminary experimental results.

Paper Nr: 5
Title:

The Current Landscape of Pitfalls in Ontologies

Authors:

C. Maria Keet, Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa and María Poveda-Villalón

Abstract: A growing number of ontologies are already available thanks to development initiatives in many different fields. In such ontology developments, developers must tackle a wide range of difficulties and handicaps, which can result in the appearance of anomalies in the resulting ontologies. Therefore, ontology evaluation plays a key role in ontology development projects. OOPS! is an on-line tool that automatically detects pitfalls, considered as potential errors or problems, and thus may help ontology developers to improve their ontologies. To gain insight in the existence of pitfalls and to assess whether there are differences among ontologies developed by novices, a random set of already scanned ontologies, and existing well-known ones, data of 406 OWL ontologies were analysed on OOPS!’s 21 pitfalls, of which 24 ontologies were also examined manually on the detected pitfalls. The various analyses performed show only minor differences between the three sets of ontologies, therewith providing a general landscape of pitfalls in ontologies.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

An Ontology for Designing a Collaborative Platform Involving a Multi-touch and Multi-user Interactive Table

Authors:

Céline Joiron, Frédéric Fürst, Gilles Kassel, Alistair Jones, Jean-Paul Barthès, Claude Moulin and Dominique Lenne

Abstract: We have developed a platform running on a large multi-touch and multi-users table. Its intended application domain is the collaborative preliminary design phase of engineering projects. We also developed an ontology describing the virtual objects of the platform and the projects on which users collaborate. In this paper we first present the originality of this ontology. It extends the DOLCE-CORE ontology in order to model the true nature of the virtual objects that the users can manipulate on the device and the users’ actions. We then present the different roles played by the ontology in the development of the platform. It serves as a reference of the semantics for the designers of the collaborative platform and as a model of the environment including table, participants, projects, etc. This model is mainly used by the intelligent agents of a multi-agent system whose objective is to support the participants during a working session around the table.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

tScore: Makes Computers and Humans Talk About Time

Authors:

Markus Lepper and Baltasar Trancón y Widemann

Abstract: Textual denotation of temporal data, i.e. parameter histories indexed by time, can be a challenge. In different domains very different notation systems have been developed for pen and paper, esp. serving the requirements of real-time practice, like graphical schedules, kinetographic notation systems, scenarios, and, as the most complex example, music in the sense of CWN, Conventional Western Notation. These systems work with symbolic representation of activities and combined expressional and spatial representation of time. In contrast, existing computer readable formats are quite different, either as simple list formats, or as expression languages. "tscore" bridges the gap between these two worlds as a notation suited for reading and writing by both humans and computers, based on the experiences of centuries of notation evolution. It combines spatial representation of time, full parametrization of all parameter scales, as well as the time model itself, and arbitrary embedded expression structures,

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Classification of Knowledge Representations using an Ontology-based Approach

Authors:

Ruben Costa, Paulo Figueiras, Pedro Maló and Celson Lima

Abstract: One of the primary research challenges in the knowledge representation domain relates to the process of formalization of document contents using dependent metadata and in particular how the classifiers are derived. Most approaches to determining appropriate classifiers are limited and only take account of the explicit, word-based information in the document. The research described in this paper explores the potential classifier enrichment through incorporation of implicit information derived from the complex relationships (Semantic Associations) in domain ontologies with the addition of information presented in documents for unsupervised document classification. The paper introduces a novel conceptual framework for representation of knowledge sources, where each knowledge source is semantically represented (within its domain of use) by a Semantic Vector (SV), which is enriched using the classical vector space model approach extended with ontological support, employing ontology concepts and their relations in the enrichment process. The test domain for the assessment of the approach is Building and Construction, using an appropriate available Ontology. Preliminary results were collected using a clustering algorithm for document classification, which indicates that the proposed approach does improve the precision and recall of classifications. Future work and open issues are also discussed.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Grounding Conceptual Modelling Templates on Existing Ontologies - A Delicate Balance

Authors:

Chiara Di Francescomarino, Chiara Ghidini and Muhammad Tahir Khan

Abstract: Using templates for conceptual modelling is becoming a fashionable way to guide and facilitate Domain Experts in providing rich and good quality knowledge. A possibility to build templates without starting from scratch is grounding them on existing foundational and core ontologies. In this paper we investigate how these ontologies can be effectively used for the construction of templates able to guarantee a balance between usability and rigorousness. We report findings and lesson learned from a survey carried out for the evaluation of templates built from existing foundational and core ontologies in the enterprise domain.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Contributing Evidence to Data-driven Ontology Evaluation - Workflow Ontologies Perspective

Authors:

Hlomani Hlomani and Deborah Stacey

Abstract: Ontologies have established themselves as the single most important semantic web technology. They have attracted widespread interest from both academic and industrial domains. This has led to an increase in ontologies created. It has become apparent that more than one ontology may model the same domain yet they can be very different. The question then is, how do you determine which ontology best fits your purposes? This paper endeavours to answer this question by reviewing relevant literature and instantiating the data-driven ontology evaluation methodology in the context of workflow ontologies. This evaluation methodology is then evaluated through statistical means particularly the Kruskal-Wallis test and further post hoc testing using the Mann-Whiteny U test.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Qualitative Spatial Reasoning in RCC8 with OWL and SWRL

Authors:

Stella Marc-Zwecker, François de Bertrand de Beuvron, Cecilia Zanni-Merk and Florence Le Ber

Abstract: The Region Connection Calculus (RCC), and particularly its RCC8 subset, have been extensively studied and used for qualitative spatial reasoning. Some sets of computational operations have also been defined for topological relations, as the CM8 set, that allows to compute the RCC8 relationships on raster images. In this paper, we propose a reified representation of the RCC8 spatial relationships and of the CM8 primitives, within a lattice of concepts, implemented in OWL (Ontology Web Language) in order to help the interpretation of urban satellite images. Our approach allows for a straightforward representation of concepts corresponding to conjuctions or disjunctions of RCC8 spatial relationships, and thus offers the advantage to overcome some drawbacks of the existing approaches in OWL, where spatial relations are represented as roles. Indeed, the OWL language does not allow the expression of the disjunction or of the conjunction of roles. We can then implement a reasoning on the RCC8 relationships, which in particular allows to compute the composition table and its transitive closure. As the reification of roles precludes the use of role’s properties, such as symmetry and transitivity, we propose to implement RCC8 inferences through SWRL rules (Semantic Web Rule Language).

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Patient Identification for Clinical Trials with Ontology-based Information Extraction from Documents

Authors:

Peter Geibel, Hebun Erdur, Lothar Zimmermann, Stefan Krüger, Kati Jegzentis, Josef Schepers, Anne Becker, Frank Müller, Christian Hans Nolte, Jan Friedrich Scheitz, Serdar Tütüncü, Tatiana Usnich, Markus Frick, Martin Trautwein, Thorsten Schaaf, Alfred Holzgreve and Thomas Tolxdorff

Abstract: In this paper, we describe the use of ontologies in the context of a system for recruiting patients for clinical trials, which is currently being tested at the {\em Charit\'{e} – Universitätsmedizin Berlin}, one of the largest university hospitals in Europe. The main purpose of the CRDW (Clinical Research Data Warehouse) is to support patient recruitment for clinical trials based on routine data from the hospital's clinical information system (CIS). In contrast to most other systems for similar purposes, the CRDW also makes use of information that is present in clinical documents like admission reports, radiological findings, and discharge letters. The linguistic analysis recognizes negated and coordinated phrases. It is supported by clinical domain ontologies that enable the identification of main terms and their properties, as well as semantic search with synonyms, hypernyms, and syntactic variants. The focus of this paper is the description of our ontology model, which we tailored to the particular requirements of our application. In the article, we will also provide an evaluation of the system based on experimental data obtained from the daily routine work of the study assistants.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

A Comprehensive Framework for Semantic Annotation of Web Content

Authors:

Manuel Fiorelli, Maria Teresa Pazienza and Armando Stellato

Abstract: Studies on Semantic Annotation reveal how trying to match heterogeneous requirements leads to divergent methodologies, models and processes for annotation management and exchange. Community efforts towards the development of shared solutions are important to reduce the “entropy” of the field; nonetheless, any agreement on the ultimate annotation system is unlikely to be achieved. We propose a solution to this problem by defining a comprehensive framework, unbound to any specific design/annotation model, and instantiable into concrete system implementations, to meet different requirements. Towards this goal, we commit to fairly general assumptions, valid across disparate systems and not excessively constraining. Firstly, most systems deal with combined management of ontologies and Web content. Secondly, these systems can be described through a common behavioural model, in terms of an assignment of handlers to predetermined events. This behavioural model can be then enriched through progressive levels of specification, thus fostering a convention-over-configuration approach in detailing its characteristics. Then, recurring design fragments can be identified, in order to provide abstractions and specifications for the definition of concrete handlers.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Embedding Proof Problems into Query-answering Problems and Problem Solving by Equivalent Transformation

Authors:

Kiyoshi Akama and Ekawit Nantajeewarawat

Abstract: A proof problem is a “yes/no” problem concerning with checking whether one logical formula is a logical consequence of another logical formula, while a query-answering problem (QA problem) is an “all-answers finding” problem concerning with finding all ground instances of a query atomic formula that are logical consequences of a given logical formula. In order to establish a precise relation between these two problem classes, the concept of an embedding mapping is introduced. When one problem class can be embedded into another problem class at low computational cost, the former class can be regarded as a subclass of the latter class and, consequently, problems in the former class can be solved through a method for solving problems in the latter one. Construction of low-cost embedding mappings from proof problems to QA problems is demonstrated. By such embedding, proof problems can be solved using a procedure for solving QA problems. A procedure for solving QA problems based on the equivalent transformation principle is presented. Application of the procedure to the two problem classes is illustrated.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Linked Open Government Data Research Panorama

Authors:

Bernardo Todesco, Bruno Blume, Airton Zancanaro, José Leomar Todesco and Fernando Gauthier

Abstract: In order to increase transparency and civic participation, governments around the world sought ways to open their data and allow both to itself as to companies and the civil population a greater share in the maintenance, surveillance and optimization of the services provided. To this end, using a technology called linked data (LD), the data released by governments became easier to be understood and properly used by humans and machines alike, thus creating what today is called linked open government data (LOGD). The purpose of this article is to present the state of art of the research in LOGD through bibliometric research, ultimately presenting a feedback on the matter.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Effects of Ontology Pitfalls on Ontology-based Information Retrieval Systems

Authors:

Davide Buscaldi and Mari Carmen Suarez Figueroa

Abstract: Nowadays, a growing number of information retrieval systems make use of ontologies to improve the access to textual information, especially in domain-specific scenarios, where the knowledge provided by ontologies represents a key factor. Such kinds of retrieval systems are often referred to as ontology-based or semantic information retrieval systems. The quality of ontologies plays an important role in such systems in the sense that modelling errors in the ontologies may deteriorate the quality of the results obtained by these systems. In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of how ontology pitfalls have an influence on these kinds of systems. This study allows us to have a more complete understanding of the role of ontology quality in the information retrieval field. Our survey shows that pitfalls may act as an indicator not only of possible problems in ontology design, but also of OWL features overseen by system developers.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

Applying Ontology-based Knowledge Methodology in Product Innovative Collaborative Conceptual Design Framework

Authors:

Janus S. Liang

Abstract: In this research, an ontology-based knowledge methodology is utilized in distributed design environment. It is composed of a regular restrictions-based method for expressing the aspired functions, a field-independent method for constructing functional knowledge of given criterion solutions, and a heterogeneous-substance-search method for combining given criterion solutions to reach the aspired functions. This research presents that the capability of function design ontology (FDO) to be inferred can acquire the design intentions by an exposition with a real toy product. Finally, this research proposes a novel framework of information sharing in product innovative design and a design viewer for collaboration in product generation.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

A Survey of Collaborative Web Search - Through Collaboration among Search Engine Users to More Relevant Results

Authors:

Pavel Surynek

Abstract: A survey on collaborative aspects of web search is presented in this paper. Current state in full-text web search engines with regards on users collaboration is given. The position of the paper is that it is becoming increasingly important to learn from other users searches in a collaborative way in order to provide more relevant results and increase benefit from web search sessions. Recommender systems represent a rich source of concepts that could be employed to enable collaboration in web search. A discussion of techniques used in recommender systems is followed by a suggestion of integration web search with recommender systems. An initial experience with web search powering small academic site is reported finally.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

OntoENERGY – A Lightweight Ontology for Supporting Energy-efficiency Tasks - Enabling Generic Evaluation of Energy Efficiency in the Engineering Phase of Automated Manufacturing Plants

Authors:

Tobias Linnenberg, Andreas W. Mueller, Lars Christiansen, Christian Seitz and Alexander Fay

Abstract: To facilitate the automated evaluation of energy-efficiency aspects of a system in the early lifecycle phase of engineering, a consistent semantic definition of the relevant terminology as well as the interrelations between those terms is required. For this purpose, a lightweight ontology named OntoENERGY has been developed, which allows for continuous handling of energy-efficiency issues in technical systems throughout their entire lifecycle. To verify OntoENERGY, a simulation model based on a real test bed of an automated plant process was modeled, analyzed, and assessed, with a focus on energy consumption and the related information. This allows optimization potential to be identified and enables a direct assessment, with the aid of a simulation model.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

Automatic Annotation of Sensor Data Streams using Abductive Reasoning

Authors:

Marjan Alirezaie and Amy Loutfi

Abstract: Fast growing structured knowledge in machine processable formats such as RDF/OWL provides the opportunity of having automatic annotation for stream data in order to extract meaningful information. In this work, we propose a system architecture to model the process of stream data annotation in an automatized fashion using public repositories of knowledge. We employ abductive reasoning which is capable of retrieving the best explanations for observations given incomplete knowledge. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the framework, we use multivariate data coming from medical sensors observing a patient in ICU (Intensive Care Unit) suffering from several diseases as the ground truth against which the eventual explanations (annotations) of the reasoner are compared.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Matching Spatial Ontologies - A Challenge of Formalization

Authors:

Sana Châabane and Faïez Gargouri

Abstract: .

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

Semi-automated Ontology Population from Building Construction Drawings

Authors:

Polina Häfner, Victor Häfner, Hendro Wicaksono and Jivka Ovtcharova

Abstract: Ontologies have been applied as knowledge representation in different domains, including intelligent building management. One of the challenges in using ontologies is the population with building specific information, such as the building elements and the energy consuming devices. The population usually has to be done manually by analysis and interpreting the building drawings, thus it requires extensive work. This is due to the lack of semantic information in the existing building construction drawings, which only contain geometrical information. However, it is possible to understand the semantics of the drawings, if the knowledge in interpreting the semantics of the symbols, shapes and other geometric information is present. This paper introduces a tool to extract the semantic information from CAD drawings and populate the ontology using the extracted semantic information in a semi-automatic way. The drawing primitives from CAD files are used to perform the pattern matching and classification algorithms to extract the semantic information. The resulting semantic information is then mapped to the corresponding ontology classes of a T-Box ontology. Finally individuals of the corresponding classes are created to populate the ontology and their geometric properties like world coordinate position and bounding box are set.

Paper Nr: 77
Title:

Supply Chain Tracing of Multiple Products under Uncertainty and Incomplete Information - An Application of Answer Set Programming

Authors:

Monica L. Nogueira and Noel P. Greis

Abstract: Food supply chains are complex networks involving many organizations and food products from the farm to the consumer. The ability to quickly trace the trajectory of a tainted food product and to identify the origin of the contamination is essential to minimizing the economic and human costs of foodborne disease. Complexities arise when multiple products traverse multiple states and/or countries and when products cross multiple intersecting supply chains. In this paper we use the example of a recent Salmonella contamination involving tomatoes and peppers imported from Mexico into the U.S. to demonstrate the use of Answer Set Programming to localize the source of contamination in a complex supply chain characterized by uncertainty and incomplete information.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

Multiple Ontologies Enhanced with Performance Capabilities to Define Interacting Domains within a Workflow Framework for Analysing Large Undersea Videos

Authors:

Nadarajan Gayathri, Cheng-Lin Yang and Yun-Heh Chen-Burger

Abstract: In this paper, we describe our efforts in using ontological engineering as a backbone technology to define multi-disciplinary knowledge that interact with one another in a complex domain. Multiple ontologies were developed to define these interacting domains. Combined with planning technology, they are used in a three-layered framework that enables the definition, creation and execution of a workflow management system based on dynamic user requirements. We report on how such ontologies play a central role in enabling the workflow system to work consistently and systematically while communicating and collaborating with other project partner systems. We also extend the capability elements of the ontologies with hardware and software performance measures. These metrics are valuable factors in improving the overall system’s performance.

Posters
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Multimodal Statement Networks for Diagnostic Knowledge Modeling and Integration

Authors:

Wojciech Cholewa, Marcin Amarowicz, Pawel Chrzanowski and Tomasz Rogala

Abstract: This paper addresses selected aspects of diagnostic knowledge management. Not only does it introduce the process of modeling with the use of multimodal statement networks, but it also presents methods of model development, nature of its individual layers and elaborates on the construction process of diagnostic knowledge base along with its verification. The main purpose of the presented method is to aid in design of diagnostic systems for complex objects requiring inference process that takes places under condition of uncertainty with partially contradictory knowledge being observable. Chosen elements were implemented in free REx software developed in R language.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Emergency Response Organization through Enterprise Engineering Perspective

Authors:

Natt Leelawat and Junichi Iijima

Abstract: Despite the best preparedness of prevention, natural disaster can strike to everyone. Emergency response is a vital action for saving people from loss and damage. We select 2011 Thailand floods, one of the costliest disasters, as our case study. This paper focuses on lifesaving processes including rescue management, temporary evacuation shelter management, and relief management. In order to understand the whole sketch of the emergency response organization, it is necessary to know the essence of the overall processes. The research objective is to find out essential components of the emergency response organization to be guideline for emergency management. It is conducted through analysis and comparison with other cases. Based on literatures and face-to-face interviews with officers from related organizations, the general emergency response activities are visualized by DEMO. The findings can suggest fundamental transactions to policy-and-decision makers to put forward their plan for the upcoming disasters.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Personalized Semantic Resources - The SemComp Project Presentation and Preliminary Works

Authors:

Alexandre Labadié, Stephane Ferrari and Thibault Roy

Abstract: This paper presents the computational aspects of the SemComp project, a multidisciplinary collaboration aiming at observing how interacting with documents acts on knowledge acquisition. It is based on a model for personalized semantic resources inspired from componential linguistics. The paper describes the advances in both the computational model’s definition as well as its implementation in a Web oriented application. Functionalities and technical choices are presented with regards to the expected experiments.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

A Lexicon Design for Ontology-based Question Answering

Authors:

Ibrahim Soumana, Sylviane Cardey and Peter Greenfield

Abstract: Data volume growth leads to new challenges for Natural Language Interfaces (NLI). With Big Data for example, NLI must not only be portable from one domain to another, but be operational simultaneously in several domains. The lexicon is an important resource that improves the system performance. In this paper, we propose an approach to design a lexicon centered on RDF (Resource Description Framework) triple. We argue that a triple centric lexicon is reusable. The lexicon is also extended to include operations and possible functions in which data can be involved. This allows increasing the complexity of questions a NLI can process.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

User-centered Approach for Evaluating Ontologies

Authors:

Abderrazak Bachir Bouiadjra and Sidi-Mohamed Benslimane

Abstract: Ontologies have been found to be beneficial in knowledge representation area. They are becoming the spine of Semantic Web, which has led during last years, to their wide utilization in different domains. The fact of being used in dynamic domains, ontologies need to evolve over time, in order to meet new requirements. As results, the number of available ontologies with several versions has become very significant. Accordingly, the need for enhancing actual ontology evaluation approaches and tools is crucial in order to achieve different goals: to ensure their correctness, to assess their adequacy regarding user requirements, and also to encourage their reuse. This paper presents the main features and enhancements of FOEval: “Full Ontology Evaluation” tool, which improves the processes of finding, evaluating and ranking ontologies.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

A Semantic-based Approach for Ontology Module Extraction

Authors:

Amir Souissi, Walid Chainbi and Khaled Ghedira

Abstract: Ontology modularization is crucial to support knowledge reuse on the ever increasing Semantic Web. However, modularization methods that serve the reuse goal are often intended for humans to assist them in building new ontologies, rather than for applications that need only a relevant part of an existing ontology. Moreover, modules obtained are always subject to verification and maintenance by humans to validate the semantic consistency of their contents. In this paper, we investigate how semantic comparisons may provide a module relevant to a set of terms which are not part of the ontology. Our objective is to extract a module which may be usable as a separate ontology. The user does not need to be familiar with the exact terms used inside the ontology beforehand to extract from it a module for a specific application/knowledge sub domain.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

From Structured Task Instructions to Robot Task Plans

Authors:

Jianmin Ji and Xiaoping Chen

Abstract: For the purpose of allowing an autonomous robot to use task instructions for task planning, we present a formalization for specifying structured task instructions and provide an approach for integrating these instructions with robot’s built-in knowledge to compute plans for open-ended tasks. We have implemented a prototype of the system. We also report a case study of the effectiveness of the approach.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Task Knowledge Model for Triage Decision-Support

Authors:

Shamimi A. Halim, Muthukkaruppan Annamalai, Rashidi Ahmad and Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad

Abstract: The paper discusses the construction of the task knowledge model to support the development of a triage decision-support system. Knowledge rather than experience is predominant in the triage decision making. Since the triage decision making knowledge is complex, we resort to knowledge modelling to help in the systematisation of the knowledge. The paper concentrates on the modelling of the task knowledge model to back triage decision-support. We adopted the CommonKADS methodology as a basis of modelling and engineering the knowledge. The top-down modelling approach availed general task structures that could be reused and adapted to engineer the triage decision-support task knowledge model. Consequently, the resulting task model informs the engineering of the triage decision-support domain knowledge model.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Linguistic-variable Definition in OWL 2 - A Protégé Plugin

Authors:

Silvia Calegari, Davide Ciucci and Matteo Mondini

Abstract: Linguistic Variables play a key role in the Computing withWords paradigm and in general in representing and managing vague knowledge. They are strongly related to Fuzzy Set Theory since the semantic of linguistic variables is given through fuzzy sets. In order to deal with structured vague information, it is thus fundamental to integrate ontologies and related instruments with fuzzy capabilities. Several approaches are known in literature that introduce fuzzy ontology languages, fuzzy reasoners and editor plug-ins to represent them. However, none directly deals with the problem of representing linguistic variables. In the present paper, we introduce a Protégé Plugin developed to define linguistic variables in ontologies. The plug-in is based on OWL2 and on a lite version of its fuzzy extension.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

Development and Population of an Elaborate Formal Ontology for Clinical Practice Knowledge Representation

Authors:

David Mendes, Irene Rodrigues and Carlos Fernandes Baeta

Abstract: The Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) complemented with the Computer-Based Patient Record Ontology (CPR)is based on several upper ontologies which may have formal ontological relations according to the OBO Foundry principles. These ontologies accordant to the underlying Ontological Realism render a structure with reasoning capabilities that reach further than those possible with logical formalisms alone. We propose to extend carefully the OGMS taking into account the diverse ontological relations found in the recently proposed Basic Formal Ontology V2, FMA and SNOMED-CT as foundational ontologies in order to extract axioms for ontology enrichment from natural language text. With these cautions in mind, using careful instantiation we improve largely the reasoning capabilities over the resulting OWL knowledge base. Most of the clinical practice knowledge is currently recorded in SOAP text format. We extend the OGMS with the CPR structure into an Ontology for General Clinical Practice (OGCP) for the generation of adequate ontologically rich axioms from the SOAP text segments.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

Semantic Gastroenterological Images Annotation and Retrieval - Reasoning with a Polyp Ontology

Authors:

Yahia Chabane and Christophe Rey

Abstract: In gastroenterology, monitoring polyps is fundamental in order to detect a cancer. It may be difficult for surgeons to decide whether he should remove a polyp or not. A wrong decision may generate unjustified costs or be dangerous for the patient health. To help their diagnosis, physicians may need images of previously treated cases. For this purpose, we present in this paper a semantic image retrieval approach focused on endoscopic gastroenterological images. This approach is based on a slight extension of classical description logic reasonings, associated with a polyp ontology and a suited image annotation mechanism.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

Lightweight Ontologies in Context - Relationship between Ontology Characteristics and Context Parameters

Authors:

Ilya M. Waldstein, Rosina O. Weber and Neal Handly

Abstract: Ontologies, mainly lightweight ontologies, are ubiquitous throughout the Internet and are succeeding in replacing human expertise. We conducted a study with physicians and nurses performing a search task in the medical domain that demonstrates that lightweight ontologies perform well as a substitute for expertise. The extent of success of the substitution depends upon context of use. Our study investigates lightweight ontologies with respect to the context of use in which they are applied. The better we understand the context of use, the better we can inform ontology design and evaluation. We describe ontologies through characteristics and context through parameters. By varying ontology characteristics and testing the effect on the performance of an ontology-supported task for a context parameter, such as the level of user expertise, we increase our understanding of ontology design and evaluation. Our study shows that changing ontologies by varying some of its characteristics has a direct and significant impact on the performance of the ontology-supported task for different levels of user expertise.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Core Ontology based Approach for Treating the Flatness of Automatically Built Ontology

Authors:

Rajani Chulyadyo, Mounira Harzallah and Giuseppe Berio

Abstract: Ontologies become more and more used in several domains (e.g. biology and healthcare, geographical information systems). In these domains, ontologies are often built starting from a huge amount of texts. However, building ontologies from texts is a rather difficult and long process. Therefore, the use of automated tools seems to be natural to highly facilitate this process. However, the obtained ontology usually contains several problems. We consider the problem of ontology flatness and propose an approach based on the core ontology to improve the classification of extracted concepts according to the core concepts. We then show how the proposed approach works on a sample ontology extracted by using Text2Onto.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

Comparative Evaluations of a Hierarchical Categorization of Search Results based on a Granular View of Domain Ontologies

Authors:

Silvia Calegari, Fabio Farina and Gabriella Pasi

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a categorization approach of search results based on the use of domain ontologies with respect to the application of standard single-label and multi-label classification algorithms. In particular, the approach in (Calegari et al., 2011) is considered, where the categorization process is performed thanks to the adoption of a taxonomy of information represented as a granular view of a domain ontology.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

Event Representation in Text Understanding - Transfer of Meaning Structures

Authors:

Haldur Õim and Mare Koit

Abstract: When modelling language understanding we have to deal with the process of transferring meanings. Humans cognize and organize the knowledge about the world, physical as well as social, in such categories as objects, situations, processes, events, etc., not sentences. The same should hold in a computational model. In this paper we will consider one kind of these categories, events. We will discuss the possible analogy in structuring the physical and social events and, accordingly, the possibility to use analogous conceptual and formal means to represent them.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

Using Ontology-based Information Extraction for Subject-based Auto-grading

Authors:

Olawande Daramola, Ibukun Afolabi, Ibidapo Akinyemi and Olufunke Oladipupo

Abstract: The procedure for the grading of students’ essays in subject-based examinations is quite challenging particularly when dealing with large number of students. Hence, several automatic essay-grading systems have been designed to alleviate the demands of manual subject grading. However, relatively few of the existing systems are able to give informative feedbacks that are based on elaborate domain knowledge to students, particularly in subject-based automatic grading where domain knowledge is a major factor. In this work, we discuss the vision of subject-based automatic essay scoring system that leverages on semi-automatic creation of subject ontology, uses ontology-based information extraction approach to enable automatic essay scoring, and gives informative feedback to students.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

Potential of Semantic Web Technologies to Support Knowledge Transfer in Forest Management

Authors:

Alfred Radl and Harald Vacik

Abstract: We introduce a Knowledge Transfer Portal (KTP) which supports knowledge transfer among researchers and forest managers. The KTP will be used for supporting transfer of knowledge generated in the FunDivEUROPE (FUNctional significance of forest bioDIVersity in EUROPE) after project life. It uses semantic web technologies to achieve a common understanding throughout a knowledge representation based on an expert elicitation process. Knowledge transfer tools (KTTs) take use of knowledge elements within the knowledge base and implement various knowledge transfer functionalities. The knowledge base shows interactions of biodiversity effects on the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. In this contribution we focus on the ongoing knowledge base engineering process and show first results that were based on a series of workshops with domain experts to generate a common understanding about terms, definitions and their relations. Relations were generated upon FunDivEUROPE project hypothesis with respect to project results and expert beliefs. We use a web-based, collaborative knowledge base engineering cycle and create a thesaurus which was initiated with terms from these expert workshops.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

The Implementation of a ReALIS-based Method of Static Intensional Interpretation

Authors:

Márton Károly and Gábor Alberti

Abstract: .

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

A Prototype for Automating Ontology Learning and Ontology Evolution

Authors:

Gerhard Wohlgenannt, Stefan Belk and Matthias Schett

Abstract: Ontology learning supports ontology engineers in the complex task of creating an ontology. Updating ontologies at regular intervals greatly increases the need for expensive expert contribution. This naturally leads to endeavors to automate the process wherever applicable. This paper presents a model for automated ontology learning and a prototype which demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed approach in learning lightweight domain ontologies. The system learns ontologies from heterogeneous sources periodically and delegates all evaluation processes, eg. the verification of new concept candidates, to a crowdsourcing framework which currently relies on Games with a Purpose. Furthermore, we sketch ontology evolution experiments to trace trends and patterns facilitated by the system.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

Automatic Generation of UIs for Disabled Users using Context-aware Techniques and Reasoning

Authors:

Lamia Zouhaier, Yousra Hlaoui Ben Daly and Leila Jemni Ben Ayed

Abstract: Today, users need to interact with the UIs of the computer systems at any time and in any place. In fact, users have to deal with diverse devices supporting diverse interfaces and used in diverse environments. Thus, research must to be devoted to adapting the content, presentation and also the navigation scheme of the user interface not only for people without disabilities but also to impaired users according to updated context of use. In fact, context is captured from the surrounding environment in which the user is interacting with the application, gathered from a variety of sources and changed dynamically over time. For that reason, we propose to include context awareness system as a solution for adaptation of user interface tailored to user with special needs. In this paper, we try to introduce our contribution in how to build a user interface which is aware and capable to adapt depending of context. Our contribution is demonstrated through the behaviour of task model.