KEOD 2014 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

OntoPhil - Exploitation of Binding Points for Ontology Matching

Authors:

Lorena Otero-Cerdeira, Francisco J. Rodríguez Martínez, Tito Valencia-Requejo and Alma Gómez Rodríguez

Abstract: In this paper a new ontology matching algorithm, OntoPhil is presented. The algorithm relies on the exploitation of some initial correspondences or binding points that connect the two ontologies used as input. First, these binding points are computed using a new lexical similarity measure which combines the information from a terminological matcher and an external one. Next, by taking these binding points as basis and by exploiting the specific features of the external structure of the ontologies matched, new binding points are discovered. Finally, the binding points are automatically sifted out and the final alignment is provided. The proposed algorithm was tested on the benchmarks provided by the well known evaluation initiative OAEI, and also compared to other matching algorithms. Our experimental results show that OntoPhil is an effective approach and outperforms other algorithms that share the same principles.

Paper Nr: 3
Title:

Merging the DOLCE and PSL Upper Ontologies

Authors:

Carmen Chui and Michael Grüninger

Abstract: In this paper, we examine the relationships between the axiomatization of participation in two upper ontologies, the Process Specification Language (PSL) and the Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering (DOLCE).We discuss the obstacles faced to formalize the relationships between these ontologies and provide an overview of the methodology undertaken to merge the ontologies together. We introduce new ontologies that serve to bridge the PSL and DOLCE ontologies together to allow us to specify the mappings between them. We illustrate how ontology verification is used to show faithful interpretations between the two upper ontologies.

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Using Hypergraph-based User Profile in a Recommendation System

Authors:

Hilal Tarakci and Nihan Kesim Cicekli

Abstract: We propose a hypergraph-based user profile which facilitates aggregating partial profiles of the individual and obtain a complete, multi-domain user model. The aggregation involves a semantic enhancement procedure which results in enriched user profiles. The proposed user model is capable of extracting general and domainbased user profiles and answering several connected data queries such as recommendation, in reasonable time. In this paper, we present a recommendation case study which uses the proposed user model and illustrate the traversal algorithms for a variety of connected data problems.

Paper Nr: 12
Title:

KEWI - A Knowledge Engineering Tool for Modelling AI Planning Tasks

Authors:

Gerhard Wickler, Lukáš Chrpa and Thomas Leo McCluskey

Abstract: This paper introduces the Knowledge Engineering Web Interface (KEWI) which primarily aims to be used for modelling automated planning tasks in a semi-formal framework. The conceptual model used to represent the declarative and procedural knowledge in KEWI is described formally. The model consists of three layers: a rich ontology, a model of basic actions, and more complex methods. It is this structured conceptual model based on the rich ontology that facilitates knowledge engineering. The focus of this paper is to show how the central knowledge model used in KEWI differs from a model directly encoded in PDDL, the language accepted by most existing planning engines. Specifically, the rich ontology enables a more concise and natural style of representation. For operational use, KEWI automatically generates PDDL. Initial experiments show that the generated PDDL can be processed by a planner without incurring significant drawbacks.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

A Dual Process Architecture for Ontology-based Systems

Authors:

Antonio Lieto, Andrea Minieri, Alberto Piana, Daniele P. Radicioni and Marcello Frixione

Abstract: In this work we present an ontology-based system equipped with a hybrid, cognitively inspired architecture for the representation of conceptual information. The proposed system aims at extending the representational and reasoning capabilities of classical ontological-based systems towards more realistic and cognitively grounded scenarios, such as those envisioned by the prototype theory. It is based on a hybrid knowledge base, composed of a classical symbolic component (grounded on a formal ontology) with a typicality-based one (grounded on the conceptual spaces framework). The resulting system attempts to reconcile the heterogeneous approach to the concepts in Cognitive Science and the dual process theories of reasoning and rationality. The system has been experimentally assessed in a conceptual categorization task where common sense linguistic descriptions were given in input, and the corresponding target concepts had to be identified. The results show that the proposed solution substantially improves on the representational and reasoning "conceptual" capabilities of standard ontology-based systems.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Data-driven Diachronic and Categorical Evaluation of Ontologies - Framework, Measure, and Metrics

Authors:

Hlomani Hlomani and Deborah A. Stacey

Abstract: Ontologies are a very important technology in the semantic web. They are an approximate representation and formalization of a domain of discourse in a manner that is both machine and human interpretable. Ontology evaluation therefore, concerns itself with measuring the degree to which the ontology approximates the domain. In data-driven ontology evaluation, the correctness of an ontology is measured agains a corpus of documents about the domain. This domain knowledge is dynamic and evolves over several dimensions such as the temporal and categorical. Current research makes an assumption that is contrary to this notion and hence does not account for the existence of bias in ontology evaluation. This work addresses this gap and proposes two metrics as well as a theoretical framework. It also presents a statistical evaluation of the framework and the associated metrics.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

A Non-standard Instance Checking for the Description Logic ELH

Authors:

Suwan Tongphu and Boontawee Suntisrivaraporn

Abstract: In Description Logics (DLs), an instance checking is regarded as one of the most important reasoning services involving individuals. Though the usability of the reasoner has been seemingly proven in many real-life applications, the classified results are merely a binary response, i.e. whether or not a given individual is an instance of a concept. As being a standard reasoning service, unsatisfying one among all sufficient conditions would basically lead to a negative conclusion. This work introduces a new method to enhance the capability of the instance checking in which the degree of membership could be unveiled though sufficient conditions are not completely satisfied. The proposed algorithm is developed based on the adoption of a homomorphism mapping.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Answering Natural Language Queries about Rehabilitation Robotics Ontology on the Cloud

Authors:

Zeynep Dogmus, Volkan Patoglu and Esra Erdem

Abstract: We introduce a novel method to answer natural language queries about rehabilitation robotics, over the formal ontology \rehabo. For that, 1) we design and develop a novel controlled natural language for rehabilitation robotics, called \rehabcnl; 2) we introduce translations of queries in \rehabcnl\ into \sparql\ queries, utilizing a novel concept of query description trees and description logics concepts; 3) we use an automated reasoner to find an answer to the \sparql\ query. To facilitate the use of our method by experts, we develop an intelligent, interactive query answering system, using Semantic Web technologies, and make it available on the cloud via Amazon web services. This interface guides the users to express their queries in natural language and displays the answers to queries in a readable format, possibly with links to detailed information. Easy access to information on \rehabo\ through complex queries in natural language may help engineers inspire new rehabilitation robot designs, while also guiding practitioners to make more informed decisions on technology based rehabilitation.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

Galaxy-Gen - A Tool for Building Galaxy Model from XML Documents

Authors:

Ines Ben Messaoud, Jamel Feki and Gilles Zurfluh

Abstract: A galaxy model is a multidimensional model dedicated for XML document warehouses. It can be seen as a network of entities (i.e., dimensions) connected via nodes. After giving an overview of our four-steps semi-automated method for the generation of galaxy models which aims to build data marts from XML documents. This paper focuses on the software tool, called Galaxy-Gen that implements the proposed method. We illustrate the Galaxy-Gen functionalities and make its first assessment through two experiments. The first experiment is applied to a set of twenty XML documents taken from the academic domain. The second one addressed a set of 1691 XML documents issued from the Clef-2007 collection. The assessment is performed by comparing manual design galaxy models with those produced by the Galaxy-Gen tool. The results are very promising.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

An Ontology for Specifying and Parsing Knowledge Representations Structures and Notations

Authors:

Philippe Martin and Jérémy Benard

Abstract: In its introduction, this article gives a short state of the art about ontologies of knowledge representation languages (KRLs) and the problems caused by i) the lack of relations between these ontologies, and ii) the lack of ontologies about notations (concrete syntaxes). For programmers, these are the difficulties of importing, exporting or translating between KRLs; for end-users, the difficulties of adapting, extending or mixing notations. To show how these problems can be solved, this article first shows how concepts of the main KRL standards can be aligned and organized. Then, it shows how this KRL model ontology can be re-used and completed by a notation ontology. Based on these two ontologies, KRLs models and notations - and thereby parsing and generation - can be specified in a concise way that even KRL end-users can adapt. The article gives representative examples. For these ontologies or specifications, a concise KRL notation is introduced and used. However, the presented approach is independent of any notation and model that has at least OWL-2 expressiveness. Thus, the results can easily be replicated. A Web address for the full specification of the two ontologies, and for a knowledge server to test or use them, is also given.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

Development of an Ontology for Aerospace Engine Components Degradation in Service

Authors:

C. Okoh, R. Roy, J. Mehnen, L. Redding and A. Harrison

Abstract: This paper presents the development of an ontology for component service degradation. In this paper, degradation mechanisms in gas turbine metallic components are used for a case study to explain how a taxonomy within an ontology can be validated. The validation method used in this paper uses an iterative process and sanity checks. Data extracted from on-demand textual information are filtered and grouped into classes of degradation mechanisms. Various concepts are systematically and hierarchically arranged for use in the service maintenance ontology. The allocation of the mechanisms to the AS-IS ontology presents a robust data collection hub. Data integrity is guaranteed when the TO-BE ontology is introduced to analyse processes relative to various failure events. The initial evaluation reveals improvement in the performance of the TO-BE domain ontology based on iterations and updates with recognised mechanisms. The information extracted and collected is required to improve service knowledge and performance feedback which are important for service engineers. Existing research areas such as natural language processing, knowledge management, and information extraction were also examined.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

Ontology Quality Problems - An Experience with Automatically Generated Ontologies

Authors:

Mounira Harzallah, Giuseppe Berio, Toader Gherasim and Pascale Kuntz

Abstract: Ontologies play a major role in the development of personalized and interoperable applications. However, validation of ontologies remains a critical open issue. Validation is fundamentally driven by an “ontology evaluation”, often referred to as “quality evaluation”, as better explained in the Introduction. This paper reports an experience designed on our previous work on quality evaluation and using ontologies automatically generated from some textual resources. In the previous work, we have proposed a standard typology of problems impacting (negatively) on the quality of one ontology (named quality problems). The experience shows how our previous work can be practically deployed. One a posteriori analysis of experience results and lessons learnt presented in the paper make explicit and concrete key contributions to validation. Finally, conclusions highlight both limitations of the experience and research perspectives.

Paper Nr: 77
Title:

Guidelines and Tool for Meaningful OWL-S Services Annotations

Authors:

Domenico Redavid, Stefano Ferilli, Berardina De Carolis and Floriana Esposito

Abstract: The current tools to create OWL-S annotations have been designed starting from the knowledge engineer's point of view. Unfortunately, the formalisms underlying Semantic Web languages are often incomprehensible to the developers of Web services. To bridge this gap, it is desirable that developers are provided with suitable tools that do not necessarily require knowledge of these languages in order to create annotations on Web services. With reference to some characteristics of the involved technologies, this work addresses these issues, proposing guidelines that can improve the annotation activity of Web service developers. Following these guidelines, we also designed a tool that allows a Web service developer to annotate Web services without requiring him to have a deep knowledge of Semantic Web languages. A prototype of such a tool is presented and discussed in this paper.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

An e-Government Project Case Study - Interview based DEMO Axioms' Benefits Validation

Authors:

Duarte Pinto and David Aveiro

Abstract: This paper has as its background, a practical enterprise change project where the Design and Engineering Methodology for Organizations (DEMO) was used in the initial stage as to give a neutral and concise but comprehensive view of the organization of a local government administration in the process of implementing an e-government project. The main contribution presented in this paper is an interview based qualitative validation of some of DEMO's axioms and claimed benefits – something that, to our knowledge has never been done up to now. Namely, we were able to validate DEMO's qualities of conciseness and comprehensiveness brought about by the transaction and distinction axioms and also the stability of its ontological models which are, by nature, highly abstracted from the human and technological means that implement and operate an organization.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

A Fuzzy-Rule Based Ontology for Urban Object Recognition

Authors:

Stella Marc-Zwecker, Khalid Asnoune and Cédric Wemmert

Abstract: In this paper we outline the principles of a methodology for semi-automatic recognition of urban objects from satellite images. The methodology aims to provide a framework for bridging the semantic gap problem. Its principle consists in linking abstract geographical domain concepts with image segments, by the means of ontologies use. The imprecision of image data and of qualitative rules formulated by experts geographers are handled by fuzzy logic mechanisms. We have defined fuzzy rules, implemented in SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language), which allow classification of image segments in the ontology. We propose some fuzzy classification strategies, which are compared and evaluated through an experimentation performed on a VHR image of Strasbourg region.

Paper Nr: 4
Title:

Location based Reminder System with Reusable Ontology

Authors:

Henrihs Gorskis and Arkady Borisov

Abstract: This paper provides a description of design of a reminder system that is based on location rather than on time. The system presented in this paper uses a reusable domain ontology model to access knowledge about a domain. The domain ontology is merged with a method ontology model in order to create an application specific ontology. This application ontology is used for communication with the user. It is proposed that using an ontology model enables the application to interpret the user input more flexibly. The reminder is triggered when a user is in close proximity to an establishment which is consistent with what was previously defined in the reminder application by the user with concepts from the domain ontology.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Semantic-based Collaborative Filtering for Enhancing Recommendation

Authors:

Gharsa Ali and Abeer ElKorany

Abstract: The significant number of available items on the Web makes it hard for a user to decide the suitable choice between competitive alternatives. Recommender systems aim to assist the users in order to make the right decision according to users' preferences and interests. This paper presents a novel semantics-based recommendation framework that integrates the advantage of knowledge-based, content based, and collaborative filtering recommendation techniques. Such that an ontological user profile is created indicating user interest and is associated with items domain ontology. Enhanced spreading activation algorithm is applied to update user interest for different items. A set of experiments was applied using real dataset (BookCrossing) demonstrated superior performance of the proposed ontology-based framework compared to other traditional approaches.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Knowledge Fusion in Context-Aware Decision Support Systems

Authors:

Alexander Smirnov, Tatiana Levashova and Nikolay Shilov

Abstract: The paper discusses knowledge fusion processes with reference to context-aware decision support. It extends the previous research work on context-based knowledge fusion patterns. The contribution of this paper is service-oriented implementation of the context-aware decision support system for emergency management. This system was used in the previous work as the basis for revealing the knowledge fusion patterns. The presentation is accompanied by examples from a fire response scenario.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

An Interactive Platform for Multilingual Linguistic Resource Enrichment

Authors:

Ahmed Tawfik, Fausto Giunchiglia and Francesco Bux

Abstract: The world is extremely diverse and its diversity is obvious in the cultural differences and the large number of spoken languages being used all over the world. In this sense, we need to collect and organize a huge amount of knowledge obtained from multiple resources differing from one another in many aspects. A possible approach for doing that is to think of designing effective tools for construction and maintenance of linguistic resources based on well-defined knowledge representation methodologies capable of dealing with diversity and the continuous evolvement of human knowledge. In this paper, we present a linguistic resource management platform which allows for knowledge organization in a language-independent manner and provides the appropriate mapping from a language independent concept to one or more language specific lexicalization. The paper explains the knowledge representation methodology used in constructing the platform together with the iterative process followed in designing and implementing the first version of the platform, named UKC-1 and the updated refined version, named UKC-2.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Cognitive Style Affecting Visual Ontology Design - KOMET Project Results

Authors:

Tatiana A. Gavrilova and Irina A. Leshcheva

Abstract: The paper presents the main results of research performed within the KOMET (Knowledge and cOntent structuring via METhods of collaborative ontology design) project that was aimed at developing a novel paradigm for knowledge structuring. By knowledge structure we define the main domain concepts and relations between them in a form of graph, map or diagram. Knowledge structures represent conceptual models. This approach considers individual cognitive styles and uses recent advances in knowledge engineering and conceptual structuring; it aims at creating new consistent and structurally holistic knowledge bases for various areas of science and technology. Research into correlations between the expert’s individual cognitive style and the peculiarities of expert’s subject domain ontology development has been completed. Implications for practice are briefly delineated.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

A Digital Preservation-Legal Ontology

Authors:

Marzieh Bakhshandeh, Barbara Kolany-Raiser, Goncalo Antunes, Silviya-Aleksandrova Yankova, Artur Caetano and Jose Borbinha

Abstract: Digital preservation has the goal of ensuring long-term access to data, enabling future users not only to benefit from today’s knowledge, but also to reuse such knowledge. Therefore, the digital preservation of a business process has the aim of enabling the use of the preserved process data so that its re-execution is possible. Law is becoming an essential application domain for technology developments, such as digital preservation. For instance, the digital preservation of copyright protected data might infringe the exclusive rights of the copyright holder. However, problems with the legal domain can arise since DP users and law-makers do not share the same perspective and concepts. Ontologies can be used to improve communication and shared understanding, giving rise to greater reuse, sharing, transparency, and interoperability. This paper presents a legal ontology that provides a hierarchical overview of how legal constraints and obligations (e.g. IP rights and licensing issues) could be enforced automatically in DP systems. The correctness of our legal ontology is validated with a set of competency questions defined in a specific case study. The aim is to obtain a clearer taxonomical view of the necessary legal knowledge that will address the concerns of industrial use-case DP stakeholders.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

Ontology-Driven Mediated Data Integration in Open Environment

Authors:

Islam Ali and Hamada Ghenniwa

Abstract: Many of the existing approaches for data integration are designed for closed environment, tightly-coupled systems and enterprise data integration. They make explicit, or implicit, assumptions about the semantic structure of the data. Because of the heterogeneous and loosely-coupled nature of open environment, such assumptions are deemed unintuitive. Because of the dynamic nature of open environments, data integration approaches based on extensional models are also inadequate for open environment. The need for an adequate model for describing data integration systems in open environment is quite evident. Intensional modeling is found to be more adequate and natural choice as it addresses the dynamic and loosely-coupled nature of open environment. In this work, an intensional model for ontology-driven mediated data integration system in open environment is proposed. The proposed model accounts for the dynamic nature of open environment and also intensionally describes the information of data sources. Formal intensional definitions for Ontology and Ontological Commitment are presented. And, finally, the interface between global and local ontologies and the formal intensional semantics of the query answering are described.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Biomedical Engineering through Ontologies

Authors:

Seremeti Lambrini and Kameas Achilles

Abstract: Biomedical engineering is the application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends in the medicine and biology fields. It comprises many research directions including computational model of HIV infection, integration of clinical and experimental data, etc. Much of the work in biomedical engineering consists in providing solutions to the problem of securing an effective integration of biomedical content. To this end, ontologies, as sharable, reusable and machine-readable artifacts capable of knowledge representation, contribute to the interoperability between systems, the access of heterogeneous information sources, and the reuse of voluminous and complex information. The aim of this paper is to present the literature on biomedical ontologies in order to highlight how current research of the ontology field can be brought to bear on the practical problems associated with biomedical engineering. Thus, we discuss the fundamental role of ontologies in biomedical engineering, we review several methodologies suitable for building specialized biomedical ontologies, and we present some peculiarities related to the creation of biomedical ontologies that continue to constitute research challenges.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Rules for Transforming OWL 2 Ontology into SBVR

Authors:

Gintare Krisciuniene, Lina Nemuraite, Rita Butkiene and Bronius Paradauskas

Abstract: Our research is concentrated on defining transformation rules from OWL 2 ontologies into SBVR vocabularies and rules without a loss of information and the expressive power, characteristic for ontologies, overcoming the fact that some ontology-specific concepts have no direct representation in SBVR. Our focus is on generic transformation rules, but the particular attention is devoted to ontologies and vocabularies related with semantic search in Lithuanian Internet corpus. Therefore, we consider some particular constructs related with our application domain, including the idea of creating domain-specific lexical ontologies, related with domain ontologies and capable to support semantic annotating and search.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

An Approach to Multimedia Content Management

Authors:

Filippo Eros Pani, Giulio Concas and Simone Porru

Abstract: Standardized formalizations of the knowledge are used by domain experts to share information in the form of reusable knowledge. The primary objective of our work is the definition of an approach for multimedia content management. We reached that goal through a validation activity which lasted for the last three years, and was carried on through the application on different case studies, some of them described in detail in previously published papers. This approach aims to represent the knowledge through a mixed-iterative approach, where top-down and bottom-up analyses are applied on the knowledge domain we want to represent. We focused our research on some issues concerning Knowledge Management, strictly related to the process of making multimedia content-related knowledge easily available to users. We need to represent and manage this knowledge, in order to formalize and codify all the knowledge in the domain. This formalization can eventually lead us to easily manage that knowledge through the use of repositories.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

An Ontology for Enforcing Security and Privacy Policies on Mobile Devices

Authors:

Brian Krupp, Nigamanth Sridhar and Wenbing Zhao

Abstract: Mobile devices have experienced explosive growth and rapid adoption. These devices have also become troves of security and privacy data of the consumers that utilize them. What makes mobile devices unique from traditional computing platforms is the additional sensing components they contain and their ease of access which allow consumers to make these devices a part of their lives. Additionally these devices are fragmented in operating systems, sensing capabilities, and device manufacturers. In this paper we define an ontology that can be utilized as a foundation for enforcing security and privacy policies across all mobile devices, and use the ontology to define policies and to model knowledge elements for mobile devices. We also identify areas where the policies can be applied, including whether to enforce policies on the device or in the cloud.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Waste Management Information System - An Expert System Using Ontologies

Authors:

Erdogan Dogdu, Bahadir Katipoglu and Umutcan Guney

Abstract: Legal documents that include rules and regulations are hard to interpret most of the time. We present the requirements and the design of an ontology-based expert system framework that we are developing for easy translation of legal concepts, rules and constraints to an ontology. Ontology engineers and domain experts on specific legal documents work collaboratively on this system to generate generic and customized ontologies via an ontology generation workbench called WOBE (Ontology-based Expert System Workbench) and the expert system built using the workbench allows end users to follow the rules and regulations without consulting the complex legal documents. We compare WOBE framework with related tools at the end.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

Solving Query-answering Problems with If-and-Only-If Formulas

Authors:

Kiyoshi Akama and Ekawit Nantajeewarawat

Abstract: A query-answering problem (QA problem) is concerned with finding all ground instances of a query atomic formula that are logical consequences of a given logical formula describing the background knowledge of the problem. A method for solving QA problems on full first-order logic has been invented based on the equivalent transformation (ET) principle, where a given QA problem on first-order logic is converted into a QA problem on extended clauses and is then further transformed repeatedly and equivalently into simpler forms until its answer set can be readily obtained. In this paper, such a clause-based solution is extended by proposing a new method for effectively utilizing a universally quantified if-and-only-if statement defining a predicate, which is called an iff-formula. The background knowledge of a given QA problem is separated into two parts: (i) a conjunction of iff-formulas and (ii) other types of knowledge. Special ET rules for manipulating iffformulas are introduced. The new solution method deals with both iff-knowledge in first-order logic and a set of extended clauses. Application of this solution method is illustrated.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

A Pattern-based System for Image Retrieval

Authors:

Olfa Allani, Hajer Baazaoui Zghal, Nedra Mellouli, Herman Akdag and Henda Ben Ghzala

Abstract: Image retrieval is a challenging field that has witnessed an explosive growth in the last few decades. Several approaches have been introduced and applied in the development of image retrieval systems. However, many limitations, such as the semantic gap, still exist. This paper introduces a pattern based image retrieval system which aims to reduce semantic gap using ontology modules and visual features. This system is based on building a pattern database combining two image aspects: visual features and semantic contents. Patterns are used in order to achieve higher relatedness between visual and high semantic information.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

Maintaining SOA Systems of the Future - How Can Ontological Modeling Help?

Authors:

Bilal Gonen, Xingang Fang, Eman El-Sheikh, Sikha Bagui, Norman Wilde, Alfred Zimmermann and Ilia Petrov

Abstract: Many future Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) systems may be pervasive SmartLife applications that provide real-time support for users in everyday tasks and situations. Development of such applications will be challenging, but in this position paper we argue that their ongoing maintenance may be even more so. Ontological modelling of the application may help to ease this burden, but maintainers need to understand a system at many levels, from a broad architectural perspective down to the internals of deployed components. Thus we will need consistent models that span the range of views, from business processes through system architecture to maintainable code. We provide an initial example of such a modelling approach and illustrate its application in a semantic browser to aid in software maintenance tasks.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

Selecting Ontology Entailments for Presentation to Users

Authors:

Artemis Parvizi, Chris Mellish, Kees van Deemter, Yuan Ren and Jeff Z. Pan

Abstract: Presenting entailments of axioms in a formal ontology is a non-trivial task. This position paper argues that the problem of selecting entailments for presentation to users is not adequately acknowledged or addressed in the literature or in implemented systems. We analyse the problem and consider some different approaches that can help to address the problem.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

The Minimal Ontology Principle - Philosophical Foundations of OPM-based Modelling and Simulation

Authors:

James Brucato and Dov Dori

Abstract: Traditionally, Software Engineering (SWE) and Systems Engineering (SE) were almost different disciplines with little overlap and with a different set of approaches and concepts. Yet, both SWE and SE reflect two sides of the same coin: both revolve around development and lifecycle support of systems. While SWE focuses on software-intensive systems, SE has focused on systems in general. However, most systems nowadays not only combine hardware and software, ever more intertwined and increasingly interdependent, they also comprise humans and organizations as stakeholders. This work aims to underline the importance of the holism as highly effective approach to both SWE and SE as it is the result of a huge and very representative set of philosophical investigations, partially illustrated in this work, assuming that the historical distinction between SWE and SE is becoming ever less relevant and that it is high time they be treated as one overarching discipline provided with a minimal ontology in order to facilitate the conceptual modelling process and improve models understandability. We propose the Object Process Methodology (OPM), together with its holistic approach to systems modelling and simulation, as main building block of the bridge between SWE and SE disciplines with respect the issues above.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

Definition and Classification of Primitives for the Robotic Unfolding of a Piece of Clothing

Authors:

Dimitra Triantafyllou and Nikos A. Aspragathos

Abstract: In this paper a dictionary of primitives is proposed that define critical features for the representation of a cloth’s configuration so as to unfold it using a general manipulator. The primitives are defined, detected and classified according to geometrical criteria. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the detection and classification approach. Finally, applications are presented where the dictionary of the proposed primitives can be used, such as the definition of different types of folds of an unfolded fabric that can facilitate the unfolding task. Conclusion and suggestions for future work completes this paper.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

A Case for Embedded Natural Logic for Ontological Knowledge Bases

Authors:

Troels Andreasen and Jørgen Fischer Nilsson

Abstract: We argue in favour of adopting a form of natural logic for ontology-structured knowledge bases as an alternative to description logic and rule based languages. Natural logic is a form of logic resembling natural language assertions, unlike description logic. This is essential e.g. in life sciences, where the large and evolving knowledge specifications should be directly accessible to domain experts. Moreover, natural logic comes with intuitive inference rules. The considered version of natural logic leans toward the closed world assumption (CWA) unlike the open world assumption with classical negation in description logic. We embed the natural logic in DATALOG clauses which is to take care of the computational inference in connection with querying.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

How to Guarantee Analysis Results Coherence after Data Warehouse Schema Changes Propagation towards Data Marts?

Authors:

Noura Azaiez and Jalel Akaichi

Abstract: Data Warehouse, accompanied with Online analytical processing, is considered as the core of the modern Decision support systems. The emergence of new analytical requirements and changes in organization business processes push the underlying information sources, destined to feed the data warehouse, to modify not only their data, but also their structure. This, obviously, has a direct impact on Data Warehouse and its associated Data Marts. Maintaining Data Warehouse structure becomes, therefore, a must; however, it is not sufficient. In fact, evolutions performed on the Data Warehouse schema have to be propagated on the related Data Marts in order to minimize costs, time-consuming and to guarantee the coherence of provided analysis results; this presents our first vision issue for which, we aim to provide an adequate solution. Another issue, which is as important as the precedent one, focuses on modeling a continuous temporal evolution phenomenon and therefore reducing inconsistent Online analytical processing queries results. Indeed, data returned by queries can be the result of an evolution phenomenon continued in several time intervals. Therefore, we nominate the versioning approach as a solution to keep traces of Data Warehouse / Data Mart schemas’ modifications. Solving these two issues presents the key of organization Decision support systems durability and its material prosperity.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

Improving Knowledge Retrieval in Digital Libraries Applying Intelligent Techniques

Authors:

Antonio Martín and Carlos León

Abstract: Nowadays an enormous quantity of heterogeneous and distributed information is stored in the digital University. Exploring online collections to find knowledge relevant to a user’s interests is a challenging work. The artificial intelligence and Semantic Web provide a common framework that allows knowledge to be shared and reused in an efficient way. In this work we propose a comprehensive approach for discovering E-learning objects in large digital collections based on analysis of recorded semantic metadata in those objects and the application of expert system technologies. We have used Case Based-Reasoning methodology to develop a prototype for supporting efficient retrieval knowledge from online repositories. We suggest a conceptual architecture for a semantic search engine. OntoUS is a collaborative effort that proposes a new form of interaction between users and digital libraries, where the latter are adapted to users and their surroundings.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

A Semi-automatic Mapping Selection in the Ontology Alignment Process

Authors:

Hafed Nefzi, Mohamed Farah, Imed Riadh Farah and Basel Solaiman

Abstract: Ontologies are considered as one of the most powerful tools for knowledge representation and reasoning. Thus, they are considered as a fundamental support for image annotation, indexing and retrieval. In order to build a remote sensing satellite image ontology that models the geographic objects that we find in a scene, their characteristics as well as their relationships, we propose to reuse existing geographic ontologies to enrich an ontological core. Reusing high quality resources (called source ontologies) helps ensuring a good quality for the extracted knowledge, and alleviating the conceptualization stage, i.e. avoiding building a new ontology from scratch. Ontology alignment is an important phase within the enrichment process. It is a process that allows discovering mappings between core and source ontologies, where each mapping is a couple of entities brought from each ontology and linked together either by an equivalence or a subsumption relationship. Such relationships are based on various similarity measures. In this paper, we first present a brief literature review of existing theoretical frameworks for similarity measures, then we describe a new alignment approach based on a semi-automatic mapping selection process that needs little human intervention. First experiments show the benefit from using the proposed approach.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

Business Process Search within Unstructured Repositories

Authors:

Maya Lincoln and Avi Wasser

Abstract: In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in developing frameworks and tools for searching business process model repositories. While research on searching structured repositories has been extensive, little attention was dedicated to searching business process content within unstructured repositories, such as the Web. We demonstrate why current search technologies are not useful for extracting process content from the Web, and explain the core reasons for the deficiency. We then present a framework for overcoming this material weakness, and discuss possible applications for realizing the suggested method.

Posters
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Clarification KBS as Consultation-Justification Mash Ups - Proposing a Novel Paradigm for All-in-One Knowledge-based Systems

Authors:

Martina Freiberg, Felix Herrmann and Frank Puppe

Abstract: Regarding knowledge-based systems (KBS), the once common paradigm—perfectly mimicking the abilities of human experts—is gradually replaced by an increasing demand for more (active) user participation. The therefore required key features intelligent data input handling and results presentation/justification, however, are still treated separately most often. In this paper, we propose a novel KBS paradigm, the Clarification KBS, as a mash up type of consultation and justification interaction and presentation—intended to foster active user participation according to users’ competency; the KBS’ explicability; and support for learnability. We discuss both the theoretical concept of clarification KBS, as well as several distinct variants for realizing appropriate UI- and interaction designs. Further, we report diverse evaluation experiences regarding a specific instantiation of clarification KBS—the ITree KBS type; therefore, we subsume its specific characteristics, describe corresponding case studies, and discuss the respective results.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Construction of Ontology for Semantic Annotation Resume

Authors:

Nouha Mhimdi, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem Karaa and Henda Ben Ghezala

Abstract: This paper investigates a new approach to improve the semantic web technologies by suggesting a new approach for semantic annotation resume which allows to enriching the resumes in the e-recruitment domain with metadata (annotations). For this purpose, we exploited the ontology which defines the semantic content of the resumes. Also, we used a well-known approach to calculate the degree of similarity between the concepts of ontology in order to provide the semantic aspect of the annotation.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Can SKOS Ontologies Improve the Accuracy of Measuring Semantic Similarity of Purchase Orders?

Authors:

Steven B. Kraines

Abstract: The effect of additional domain knowledge provided by a SKOS ontology on the accuracy of semantic similarity calculated from product item lists in purchase orders for a manufacturer of modular building parts is examined. The accuracy of the calculated semantic similarities is evaluated against attribute information of the purchase orders, under the assumption that orders with similar attributes, such as the industrial type of the purchasing entities and the type of application of the modular building, will have similar lists of items. When all attributes of the purchase orders are weighted equally, the SKOS ontology does not appear to increase the accuracy of the calculated item list similarities. However, when only the two attributes that give the highest correlation to item list similarity values are used, the strongest correlation between item list similarity and entity attribute similarity is obtained when the SKOS-ontology is included in the calculation. Still, even the best correlation between item list and entity attribute similarities yields a correlation coefficient of less than 0.01. It is suggested that inclusion of semantic knowledge about the relationship between the set of items in the purchase orders, e.g. via the use of description logics, might increase the accuracy of the calculated semantic similarity values.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

An Ontology based Approach for Assisting Conceptualisation in CAD Processes

Authors:

Ewa Grabska

Abstract: This paper continues development of ontological approach to conceptual visual design aided by computer. Design ideas during the conceptualization phase are externalized by the designer in the form of diagrams on the monitor screen and automatically transformed by the system into data structures being hyper-graphs. Hyper-graph structures are combined with logic-based knowledge representation techniques. Different types (sorts) are used to represent knowledge from diagrams and many-sorted first order languages for their formal specification. The paper is the next attempt to formalize ontology-based knowledge framework for CAD process. The proposed method is illustrated with an exemplary of design of floor-layouts aided by the prototype of the System, so called HSSDR (Hyper-graph System Supporting Design and Reasoning).

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Enterprise Ontologies: Open Issues and the State of Research - A Systematic Literature Review

Authors:

Artur Leinweber, Max Freiberg, Patrick Spenke and Birger Lantow

Abstract: The aim of this work focused on the content of the subject ”Enterprise Ontology”. We present our ongoing work on analysing literature about enterprise ontology models. The provision of this analysis is on the one hand a summary of some previously published papers according to the topic and at the same time a precise differentiation can be documented between each work. Our contributions are twofold: first, we show how to find appropriate literature according to specific criteria and second, we answer special research questions which belong to ”Enterprise Ontology”. Moreover, the results of the different authors presented in this paper are innovative visions about creating and implementing tools or ontological models.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

Ontology Modification in a Multi-User Concept - Conflict Resolution

Authors:

Fatma Chamekh, Guilaine Talens and Danielle Boulanger

Abstract: The task of ontology evolution has been a topic of several research works leading to a number of tools facilitating the process of ontology evolution. These tools often propose different approaches without taking into account the multi-user context. It is either assumed that an ontology engineer changes the ontology, or that experts modify the ontology in asynchronous way. In this paper, we propose an approach to update ontologies for keeping knowledge up to date. This approach is based on agent’s paradigm. The relevance of agents is that they can interact with each other to assist the expert to upgrade dynamically knowledge. In multi-user context, experts are able to modify simultaneously the same ontological entity which can generate conflict situations in the system. This one could generate ontology inconsistency. To control the conflict situation each agent uses predefined rules.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Reasoner Performance on Ontologies for Operations

Authors:

Scott Bell, Jim Carciofini, Mark Boddy and Pete Bonasso

Abstract: While creating a software suite of ontology tools for operations, we encountered several reasoner performance scaling issues. This paper describes the symptoms, the diagnosis, and the mitigation strategies used.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

MS-ONTO - Model and System for Supporting Ontology Evolution

Authors:

Emile Tawamba, Roger Nkambou, Bernabé Batchakui and Claude Tangha

Abstract: Ontology is becoming the key knowledge capture structure in many domains. It plays a very important role in the area of semantic web and is widely used in multiple fields including Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) and e-Learning. Ontologies are intensively used in domain knowledge modeling in specific areas which can evolve. However, current tools used to implement ontologies fail to provide functions to adequately ensure their evolution. To deal with this issue, we have developed an ontology evolution management system named «MS-ONTO», founded on a formal description of evolution operators. MS-ONTO allows the preservation of both the internal and external integrity constraints during the ontology evolution: the external integrity meaning the preservation of its usage while internal integrity means its conformity to the constraints (implicit or explicit) related to the ontology model itself. MS-ONTO should be integrated as a plug-in in existing ontology editors such as NeOn Toolkit and Protégé.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Theoretical Challenges in Knowledge Discovery in Big Data - A Logic Reasoning and a Graph Theoretical Point of View

Authors:

Pavel Surynek and Petra Surynková

Abstract: This paper addresses a problem of knowledge discovery in big data from the point of view of theoretical computer science. Contemporary characterization of big data is often preoccupied by its volume, velocity of change, and variety that causes technical difficulties to handle the data efficiently while theoretical challenges that are offered by big data are neglected at the same time. Contrary to this preoccupation with technical issues, we would like to discuss more theoretical issues focused on the goal briefly expressed as what be understood from big data by imitating human like reasoning through logic and algorithmic means. The ultimate goal marked out in this paper is to develop an automation of the reasoning process that can manipulate and understand data in volumes that is beyond human abilities and to investigate if substantially different patterns appear in big data than in small data.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Intelligent Student Support in the FLIP Learning System based on Student Initial Misconceptions and Student Modelling

Authors:

Sokratis Karkalas and Sergio Gutiérrez Santos

Abstract: The ’FLIP Learning’ (Flexible, Intelligent and Personalised Learning) is an Exploratory Learning Environment (ELE) for teaching elementary programming to beginners using JavaScript. This paper presents a sub-system in FLIP that can be used to generate individualised real-time support to students depending on their initial misconceptions. The sub-system is intended to be used primarily in the early stages of student engagement in order to help them overcome the constraints of their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) with minimal assistance from teachers. Since this is an ongoing project we also report on issues related to potential changes or enhancements that will enable a more optimised use under real classroom conditions.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

Modelling Debates on the Computer

Authors:

Mare Koit and Haldur Õim

Abstract: In the paper, a model of debate is developed which includes a model of argument. When starting interaction, the participants have opposite communicative goals. They are exchanging arguments and counter-arguments and one of them has finally to abandon his or her initial communicative goal, i.e. one participant ‘wins’ and another ‘loses’. An analysis of human-human dialogue corpus is carried out in order to evaluate the suitability of the model for describing natural debates. A computer implementation is introduced. Notions of negotiation, debate and argument are discussed.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

An Automatic Coding System with a Three-Grade Confidence Level Corresponding to the National/International Occupation and Industry Standard - Open to the Public on the Web

Authors:

Kazuko Takahashi, Hirofumi Taki, Shunsuke Tanabe and Wei Li

Abstract: We develop a new automatic coding system with a three-grade confidence level corresponding to each of the national/international standard code sets for answers to open-ended questions regarding to respondent’s occupation and industry in social surveys including a national census. The “occupation and industry coding” is a necessary task for statistical processing. However, this task requires a great deal of labor and time-consuming. In addition, inconsistent results occur if the coders are not experts of coding. In formal research, various automatic coding systems have been developed, which are incomplete and generally unfriendly to a non-developer user. Our new system assigns three candidate codes to an answer for coders by SVMs (Support Vector Machines), and attaches a three-grade confidence level to the first-ranked predicted code by using classification scores to support a manual check of the results. The system is now open to the public through the Website of the Social Science Japan Data Archive (SSJDA). After the submitted data file which followed the specified format is approved, the users can obtain files of codes for up to four kinds with a three-grade confidence level. In this paper, we describe our system and evaluate it.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

Ontology Based Environmental Knowledge Management - A System to Support Decisions in Manufacturing Planning

Authors:

Sarfraz Ul Haque Minhas and Ulrich Berger

Abstract: The environmental efficiency based decision making to decide for optimal manufacturing routes in the decentralized production, has become very complicated. The draining of skilled workers, limited functionalities of decision support tools, localisation of information resources, unavailability of adequate environmental knowledge, systematic management of the same and non automated information exchange between various information tools are among the causes that generally hamper the decision making process. The complexities can be resolved if the mechanism for environmental data collection, structuring and retrieval over a web environment is developed so that both collaborative and individual decision making is possible. This paper discusses the case study from the automotive manufacturing area and the development of environmental knowledge management tool capable of providing planners and production managers the knowledge related to the potential environmental impact of the manufacturing choices in a distributed manufacturing scenario.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

A Task-Aware Empirical Know-How Map Built on Domain Q&A

Authors:

Bo Song and Zuhua Jiang

Abstract: Empirical know-how represents the skill-related knowledge acquired from a person’s past experience in processing certain tasks. In various online technique forums and the communication between knowledge workers, such knowledge exists with a large quantity in the form of questions and answers (Q&A). However, until now there has been little effort put into the better organization, visualization and reuse of this knowledge, making the only way to access it as through the time consuming keywords search. In this study we present a knowledge map visualizing two kinds of relationships specific to the empirical know-how, and endow the knowledge map with context awareness to make it sensitive to an ongoing user task. It is expected with our method an inexperienced knowledge worker could accomplish his/her task with less knowledge seeking activity and gain problem-solving skills more easily. The human evaluation has identified improved novelty in the know-how retrieved by our method than by a general search engine.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

Dynamic OWL Ontology Design Using UML and BPMN

Authors:

J. I. Olszewska, R. Simpson and T. L. McCluskey

Abstract: Ontology design is a crucial task for the Semantic Web. In the literature, methodologies have been proposed to develop ontologies, however the phase between knowledge gathering and knowledge coding remains challenging. In this paper, we propose a dynamic ontology design based on dynamic design notations for a systematic identification of the relations between domain concepts. For this purpose, we propose the use of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN), and the mapping of the related dynamic notations to the ontology domain. Our approach has been successfully validated in a study case of an ontology with a publication repository domain.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

Opinion-Ontologies - Short and Sharp

Authors:

Iaakov Exman

Abstract: Opinion-Ontology is a short and sharp tweetable recommendation conceptualization which can be actually sent in a message. But, one should ask in which sense is this a true ontology? On the one hand, it does not represent the common vocabulary or the shared meanings of a domain, as it is subjective. On the other hand, it does contain a semantic structure, which in spite of being subjective enables making inferences and taking rational decisions in practical situations. These are demonstrated by case studies with several examples of booking a table in a restaurant or a room in a hotel in previously unvisited places. The proposed characteristics of opinion-ontologies – efficient information transmission and integration with similar opinion-ontologies without expanding their sizes – can be and we actually intend to implement in a software system, to enable testing in practice, the whole approach.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 63
Title:

Transformation of DEMO Model into Coloured Petri Net - Ontology based Simulation

Authors:

Tarek Fatyani, Junich Iijima and Jaehyun Park

Abstract: Enterprises are growing in complexity due to many business processes. This growth requires a simple but complete model for enterprise design. The DEMO model has proven its ability to describe an enterprise in a concise, coherent, and complete manner over the last decade. However, validating the model in the real world requires methods that enable debugging and testing the model, which can be achieved by simulating the model. In this paper, a simulation methodology is proposed. The methodology is based on mapping one to one from the DEMO model to Coloured Petri Net. The reason for choosing CPN is to use the richness of the Petri Net research results on, e.g., performance, deadlock analysis, animation, etc. Furthermore, CPN has a mathematical representation, which can initiate research on analysing DEMO models mathematically. As for validation, this paper applied the proposed transformation method to a case study.